Strategies for building awareness for the potential of peace education in Cameroon Ben Oru Mforndip
Special Report
Has Democracy Enhanced Development in Africa? Conrad John Masabo
Permanent Emergency Powers in France: The ‘Law to Strengthen Internal Security and the Fight Against Terrorism’ and the Protection of Human Rights Lena Muhs
Women’s Political Representation in Sri Lanka: Leading towards Prosperity or Peril Pujika Rathnayake
Lack of empathy as a threat to peace Victoria Scheyer
Comment II
The death of democracy in Honduras Daniel Bagheri S.
The Persons Who Changed the Lives of Terrorists and Criminals Surya Nath Prasad

Teaching Peace from Tales of the City: Peace Education through the Memoryscapes of Nagasaki Patporn Phoothong
Special Report
Reflections of Refugees in Africa Wyclife Ong'eta Mose
Challenges and prospects of AU to implement the Ezulwini Consensus: The case of collective security and the use of force Tunamsifu Shirambere Philippe
The Right to Food Shant Melkonian
Freedom of Expression Under Threat in Zambia Mariateresa Garrido
Douglas Janoff on LGBTQIA Human Rights Luciana Téllez
Common Things: Communication, Community, Communal Peacebuilding Lina Patricia Forero Martínez
The political Crisis of the 2017 Honduran Election Daniel Bagheri S.
Research Summary
Water Security in the Sixaola River Basin Adrián Martinez Blanco and Diana Ubico Durán
Reborn Arunima Chouguley
An Open Letter to the American People: Political Responsibility in the Nuclear Age Richard Falk, David Krieger, and Robert Laney


Last Updated: 03/15/2005
Iran and the Centrality of the IAEA
Dr. Aldo Zammit Borda

Everyone has concerns about Iran's burgeoning nuclear capabilities, but are we working together? The EU-3 encourages cooperation using "carrots," little rewards like equipment and technology. The US, on the other hand, seems to be working at cross purposes by using military threats, threats that could prove counter productive and encourage Iran to produce nuclear weapons for its own protection.

The conflicting approaches underscore the need for a central agency like the IAEA to monitor Iran and provide full reports. Such authority should not be undermined.



Iran has repeatedly insisted it has an inalienable right to develop an indigenous nuclear capability for peaceful purposes and has given assurances that it will not develop nuclear weapons. However, these assurances have failed to convince the EU-3 and the US, who point out its recent history of concealment.

This article examines the ongoing negotiations between the EU-3 and Iran and argues that, since Iran has the right to develop an indigenous fuel-cycle capability, the EU-3 should ensure it speedily ratifies the Additional Protocol and cooperates fully with the IAEA verification mechanism.

The US s adversarial rhetoric, while aimed at dissuading Iran from developing nuclear weapons, may be counterproductive, and could convince Iranian officials of the need to develop such weapons to deter US hostility. It is argued that the US should not treat IRAN as solely a security concern, but engage with the country, taking into account Iran s concerns and role in the region.

The article concludes by underscoring the centrality of the IAEA in verifying that Iran is observing its NPT obligations and reassuring the international community of Iran s compliance. To this end, States Parties should exercise care in not undermining the Agency, as such behaviour could cause divisions.

Given that the international community is working towards the same goal of fighting proliferation, these divisions only serve to weaken its work.


Dr. Aldo Zammit Borda is currently on scholarship at the Dublin European Institute, University College Dublin, working on a thesis entitled: "Meeting the Proliferation Challenge: the EU WMD Strategy." His previous publications include "The Threat and Use of Chemical and Biological Weapons under International Law." The author may be contacted at"