HOMEStrategies for building awareness for the potential of peace education in Cameroon Ben Oru Mforndip
Has Democracy Enhanced Development in Africa? Conrad John Masabo
Permanent Emergency Powers in France: The ‘Law to Strengthen Internal Security and the Fight Against Terrorism’ and the Protection of Human Rights Lena Muhs
Women’s Political Representation in Sri Lanka: Leading towards Prosperity or Peril Pujika Rathnayake
Lack of empathy as a threat to peace Victoria Scheyer
The death of democracy in Honduras Daniel Bagheri S.
Inclusive Transitional Justice through Truth Commissions: A Book Review Amos Izerimana
Berta Vive Daniel Bagheri Sarvestani
The Persons Who Changed the Lives of Terrorists and Criminals Surya Nath Prasad
RECENT ARTICLES Teaching Peace from Tales of the City: Peace Education through the Memoryscapes of Nagasaki Patporn Phoothong
Reflections of Refugees in Africa Wyclife Ong'eta Mose
Challenges and prospects of AU to implement the Ezulwini Consensus: The case of collective security and the use of force Tunamsifu Shirambere Philippe
The Right to Food Shant Melkonian
Freedom of Expression Under Threat in Zambia Mariateresa Garrido
Douglas Janoff on LGBTQIA Human Rights Luciana Téllez
Common Things: Communication, Community, Communal Peacebuilding Lina Patricia Forero Martínez
The political Crisis of the 2017 Honduran Election Daniel Bagheri S.
Water Security in the Sixaola River Basin Adrián Martinez Blanco and Diana Ubico Durán
Reborn Arunima Chouguley
An Open Letter to the American People: Political Responsibility in the Nuclear Age Richard Falk, David Krieger, and Robert Laney
Last Updated: 07/29/2003Peace by Pieces
Mari Fitzduff, Beyond Violence: Conflict Resolution Process in Northern Ireland, United Nations University Press & INCORE 2002, pp.233 ISBN 92-808-1078-2
The major strength of this short book is its clear and detailed description of seemingly every nook and cranny that has to be dealt with to establish the conditions for peace and to maintain it. In a way it is strangely dispassionate account given the heat and passion that the violent conflict in Northern Ireland has generated. On the other hand, what screams from the page is the balance, understanding and compromise that is vital for every aspect of peace-making including the putting pen to paper. Along with the dispassionate account is also the near absence of any airy fairy theoretical nonsense: no Foucault, no class war theories, no state theory. Thus while Beyond Conflict gets close to being a “how-to” book, yet, at the same time, it is crammed with good sense and benefits from a mass of experience on the author’s part. Anyone who wants to know the ground rules for conflict resolution would do well to start here.
While she warns towards the end that despair is one of the biggest enemies, the real starting point is to know that change is possible and violence can come to an end and healing can happen. On the other hand change does not come easy: it comes from literally thousands of interventions. These interventions occur at Track 1 and Track 2 political levels, that is formal interventions at the highest political levels and informal political talks at all levels. Truces, ceasefires, peace and maintaining peace can only happen if work takes place simultaneously at all levels of the community, through all available institutions, through the creation of new physical space, through education, through police reform, through talk and more talk, through breaking down the barriers that prevent talk, through short term measures that also take account of medium and long term perspectives, through building a genuine democratic society not mere democratic institutions and so on almost endlessly.
Professor Fitzduff, who works in Belfast and has suffered through the troubles day by day and year by year, is fond of the jigsaw simile and of the insistence that the key is peace by pieces. Nothing comes all at once or by itself. There is despair, contradictions and failure but the hard won peace in Northern Ireland now stands out as a major success story. That is because of the work done by thousands, many risking their lives and some of whom are no longer alive to tell the story.
It would be good to pick out some key factors that did bring peace, but in the context of this book it is hard to identify even three or four that might stand alone because of the range of acts, activities and events that have to go together to constitute change for the better. Nevertheless, some key points do cry out for mention. Apart from the insistence that work must take place continuously everywhere in society, polity and economy, it is possible to dwell on some notable points.
However, this last point about ripeness brings this reviewer to one of the few points of omission. It has always been the case that the British Government has agreed that Northern Ireland will remain within the UK if the democratic vote seeks that end. But the demographic changes in Northern Ireland have for some time begun to indicate that while there was a substantial majority voting to stay in the UK in the 1960s, the increase of the Republican vote through demographic change means that at some future stage, maybe half a generation, a plebiscite vote would take Northern Ireland into the Republic. This future “threat” to the current Protestant Loyalist majority is not discussed.
Another omission is the effect on British opinion of Republican mainland[i] targeting, which certainly had multifarious effects, not the least of which was to create a “war weary” British public, and to spur on a number of politicians who sought to make their reputations by attempting to solve a seemingly intractable violent conflict.
Finally, in the quick run through of causes of the conflict at the beginning of the book, the author clearly and rightly identifies the dominance of the Loyalists over the large Catholic minority lacking human rights and privilege as the key cause of the conflict. On the other hand, being a bit airy fairy myself, I would like to have seen a discussion of “Irishness”. After all, the Loyalists are also Irish. Do we distinguish between GB Shaw, JM Synge, Jonathan Swift, James Joyce, Samuel Beckett? They are all Irish, whether Prod or Taig. Of the several violent attempts by the Irish to gain their freedom from the British mentioned by the author, one of the more famous, that of the United Irishmen, was led by the Protestant Wolfe Tone in 1798, who cheated the gallows by committing suicide, much to the chagrin of the Catholics among his following. The point is simply that the Loyalists also regard themselves as Irish as well as British.
However, these omissions are all perfectly reasonable given the purpose of Beyond Violence. This world needs clear no-nonsense analysis of the complexities of securing a peaceful world. Mari Fitzduff has provided it.
[i] The IRA targeted courts of justice, Downing Street, individual politicians, the City of London, the cities of Manchester and Birmingham, Tower of London, shopping centres and the whole of the British cabinet including the then prime minister. The term mainland, oddly, refers to the neighbouring island of Britain.