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Last Updated: 06/01/2010
Mantras and Maxims about Mabhouh: Analyzing An Information Overload
Jaclyn Nardone

What is the real story behind Mahmoud Al-Mabhouh’s Dubai death? After understanding the Palestinian Question, Hamas and Mossad, this essay will tackle an information overload and analyze how Israel’s The Jerusalem Post, Dubai’s ­Khaleej Times and Britain’s The London Independent covered this James Bond style, January assassination. Who said what, how and why; terrorists and spies, accusations and blame, military shopping-sprees, involvement of outsiders and identity fraud.


Introduction

The lavish Al-Bustan Rotana hotel, located in the modern Middle Eastern Emirate of Dubai, one of the seven United Arab Emirates, was recently the scene of a James Bond style assassination. On January 20th 2010, Hamas leader Mahmoud Al-Mabhouh was allegedly assassinated via “a sophisticated intelligence operation,”[i] carried out by Mossad,[ii] the Israeli intelligence agency. The assassination, which has also been coined as a murder, was caught by the hotel’s security CCTV cameras, which saw Mabhouh return to the hotel around 8:30pm that evening. It was soon after that the assassination was carried out, and because of modern media technology, that the scandal was broadcasted for the world to see. However, by the time Mabhouh’s body was found, the assassins had time to escape the country. This essay will seek to unfold this Dubai thriller story, via the Palestinian Question, Hamas and Mossad, and furthermore via explore the common mantras, slogans and catchphrases that help create public opinion regarding this assassination. The story that this essay will portray, about what happened in Dubai, is told through various texts published by Israel’s The Jerusalem Post(JP), Dubai’s ­Khaleej Times(KT) and Britain’s The London Independent(LI).

Palestinian Question

“For close to sixty years now the Palestinians have remained steadfast as a nation in their demand to have their legal rights acknowledged.”[iii] Palestine, a former Ottoman province, was put under British mandate in 1920. By 1947, the British handed over the question of Palestine to the UN, and one year later, the Jewish community declared the land as the state of Israel. The maltreatment that Palestinians have faced, under Israeli governance, led to the first Palestinian Intifada (uprising) in 1987 and the second in 2000. Yassar Arafat, the late President of Palestinian National Authority until 2004 who is now succeeded by Mahmoud Abbas, created the Fatah political party in 1959. Under such leaderships, the Palestinians have refused to give up their fight; hence the new cyber Intifada that is surfacing on Twitter, described as “Palestine’s weapon of mass instruction,”[iv] which is being followed by almost 2,000 users. Conflict between the two groups indeed persists, even though the UN has passed various Resolutions, in hopes to see an end to the conflict and an answer to the Palestinian Question. Palestinians “continue to confront an official Israeli policy of denial and anti-repatriation that seems only to have hardened over the same period.”[v]

Parties Involved; ‘Terrorists’ and ‘Spies’

Hamas, also known as Harakat al-Muqawama al-Islamiya (Islamic Resistance Movement), “emerged in 1987 as an outgrowth of the Palestinian branch of the Egypt-based Muslim Brotherhood.”[vi] Today, it is widely known and recognized by many governments as a terrorist group. Hamas’ political activities seek to compete with the Palestinian Liberation Organization (PLO) and the Palestinian Army (PA). In addition, Hamas operates strategically, via social and military branches. Though eliminating the state of Israel and “replacing Israel with an Islamist Palestinian state is Hamas’ overarching priority, the group also sees itself as leading a broader, pan-Islamist international movement.”[vii] Hamas, earning majority in Palestinian Parliament and thus earning control over the Gaza Strip, has also earned the reputation of being a terrorist group, as it has been guiltily accused of rocket attacks, and other forms of violent strikes, onto Israeli soils. And there to counteract the actions of Hamas is Mossad, the National Intelligence Agency of Israel, which was formed in 1951. Mossad is known for carrying out operations of spying, espionage, counterterrorism and assassination and was “appointed by the State of Israel to collect information, analyze intelligence, and perform special covert operations beyond its borders.”[viii] The group’s two main branches are Aman (military intelligence) and Shin Bet (internal security). Mossad has been known over the years to carry out secretive attacks and murders, with permission of higher authorities.

The actions of both Hamas and Mossad, which can be classified as insurgent groups whose actions resemble acts of terrorism, are not considered ordinary criminals. Terrorism is a weapon that ‘drowns the fish,’ so to speak, which can be used by all sides in a conflict. It is revolutionary violence; one man’s terrorism is another man’s Jihad (personal struggle). Terrorism incites fear, deception, pride, invasion, and so on. It consists of violent actions driven by desperation, carried out against civilians and others that demand change, by installing a climate of fear. Acts of terrorism are conducted by state and non-state actors, against civilians. Another way of looking at terrorism is through organized warfare. Roger Trinquier argues that modern warfare is defined through guerilla warfare, which is exemplified through terrorism; “the basic weapon of modern warfare, particularly in the cities, is terrorism, supported by a special organization.”[ix] In this case, the special organization can either be Hamas or Mossad. In comparison to traditional warfare and the army, “modern warfare seeks to “create a situation favorable to the build-up of a regular army for the purpose of eventually confronting an enemy army on the battlefield and defeating him.”[x] In this case, the regular army would be Mossad and the enemy army would be Hamas, who through their actions, try to “create a climate of insecurity, to compel the forces of order to retire.”[xi]

But in terms of this attempt to restrain the Mossad force, how can this be expected if they operate as ‘spies’? Such allegations of Mossad being a spy agency, coins the most commonly entreating and sensationalized mantra of the entire assassination situation. The article Keep Dubai Safe(KT) says it perfectly; “the recent assassination of Hamas official Mahmoud Al Mabhouh’s in Dubai has all the makings of a top espionage thriller.”[xii] The article Dubai police: Soon we’ll have proof against Mossad(JP) refers to the group as “the 11 person hit squad.”[xiii] The article Killing blamed on Hamas traitor as passport showdown looms(LI) also calls the assassins an “11-strong hit squad.”[xiv] The article Mabhuh killers to be found in Israel: Dubai police(KT) calls the murder, carried out by Mossad’s hit squad, as a “Cold War-style hit on Mahmud al-Mabhuh.”[xv] The article The moment Mossad agents got their man?(LI) refers to the group as “spies” (according to Gad Shimron, a former Mossad officer) and “killers” who carried out a “mysterious” assassination.[xvi] The article Killing blamed on Hamas traitor as passport showdown looms(LI) calls the situation one with “spy-novel ambience.”[xvii] The article Security and Defense; Espionage, with a smile(JP) called the group’s work that of “a professional espionage agency.”[xviii] The article Don’t assume Mossad killed Mabhouh(JP) notes how few people know the inside hidden truths of Mossad’s secretive ways; “few people are privy to the cloak-and-dagger operations of the Mossad.”[xix]

Did They, or Didn’t They?

The secrecy behind Mossad operations is illustrated in what Josef Goebbels, Hitler’s Minister of Propaganda, once said; “we do not talk to say something, but to obtain a certain effect.”[xx] Mossad did not kill Mabhouh because he was a specific and direct threat, but rather to spread a message to Hamas, Palestinians, Israeli and the global audience. This message can be summed up on three parts; don’t mess with us, and don’t accuse us, because you have no proof.

Gadi Wolfsfeld’s idea preaches that because events have no inherent meaning, the meaning is constructed through social processes, and therefore events are irrelevant to the process. “Social construction of reality theory is grounded on the premise that we live in a fundamentally ambiguous social world – a world in which persons, objects, and actions have no inherent meaning. If meaning is not inherent, then it must be created – imposed on action, events, or things through human action.”[xxi] This Hamas leader meant nothing, until Mossad killed him. The conflict between the two warring parties meant nothing, until an attack was carried out and caught the attention of the media. But the social process, which constructs the meaning of the event itself, may be skewed and confused, when victimizers are not certainly defined. So, did Mossad killed Mabhouh, or not?

The article Security and Defense; Espionage, with a smile(JP) highlights one of the main mantras of this situation; did they or didn’t they do it? The Israeli government is neither confirming nor denying the role that Mossad played in the assassination; “Israel has of course not taken responsibility for the assassination, but at the same time it has also not denied reports of its involvement.”[xxii] The article Interpol seeks 16 over Dubai assassination(LI) says that “Israel has neither confirmed nor denied involvement.”[xxiii] The article Don’t assume Mossad killed Mabhouh(JP) says that “Israel never responds, never confirms and never denies… there is no reason for Israel to change this policy.”[xxiv] Daphna Baram, Israeli Journalist, highlights that between the lines of neither confirming nor denying, Mossad stands firm in saying that “if somebody’s going to mess with us, then we are going to mess with them back.”[xxv] In continuing with the mantra expressed by Baram, in an interview with Russia Today, Mossad specialist Gordon Thomas expressed that this attack was Mossad’s “deliberate attempt to say, don’t mess with us,”[xxvi] and thus Mossad is no doubt, “guilty as charged.”[xxvii] Even though Israel is playing the role of indifference, it is known ‘across-the-board’ that Mossad was responsible, even though they have not said or did anything that would prove them guilty. In Killing blamed on Hamas traitor as passport showdown looms(LI), Israel's Foreign Minister Avigdor Lieberman is quoted saying that “there “is no reason to think it was the Israeli Mossad” behind the crime, but stops short of a denial.”[xxviii] However, without quoting anyone, the article Supermarket ad mimics Dubai assassination(LI) states that “Israel's Mossad spy agency is widely suspected in the killing.”[xxix]

In the article Security and Defense; Espionage, with a smile(JP), Minister Daniel Herschkowitz reinforces this notion; “my impression is that the Mossad knows how to get the job done, and it is a known thing that anyone who lifts a hand against a Jew is putting his life on the line.”[xxx] This does in fact make sense when considering that Mabhouh is widely known, within the defense establishment, for his involvement with the two kidnappings and murders of IDF soldiers Ilan Sa’adon and Avi Sasportas in 1989, during the First Intifada.[xxxi] The article Dubai Police identify 4 Suspects behind Mabhouh’s murder(KT) seconds this fact, stating that Mabhouh “left Gaza in 1989, pursued by Israel for his role in the abduction and killing of two of its soldiers.”[xxxii] Thus, due to his violent actions, Zionists attempted to assassinate him various times, and thus he fled from Israelis.[xxxiii] Furthermore, Security and Defense; Espionage, with a smile(JP) continues with the notion that “while Israel’s involvement is unknown, from a policy perspective it would make sense that it would have wanted Mabhouh dead.”[xxxiv] Murder Most Foul(KT) seconds this notion of Israeli policy; “murder has been the official policy of Israel and it has turned it into art after years of practice.”[xxxv]

The article From Dubai to Twitter – what’s real?(JP) also highlights that in addition to being responsible for the killing of two men roughly 20 years ago, Mabhouh was “involved in smuggling weapons into the Gaza Strip,”[xxxvi] that would be used in attack against Israel, thus injuring Jews. The article After Dubai hit, Israeli question Mossad methods(KT) reaffirms that Mabhouh killed two Israeli troops, and was also responsible for “smuggling of Iranian-funded arms to Gaza.”[xxxvii] The article Don’t assume Mossad killed Mabhouh(JP) claims notes that Al-Mabhouh was “supplied Gaza's Hamas rulers with the most dangerous weapons it possesses.”[xxxviii] The article Dubai Police identify 4 Suspects behind Mabhouh’s murder(KT) quotes Ram Yigra, former Mossad officer, saying that “in the end of the day, Mr. Mabhouh was into arms smuggling, which means shady relationships.”[xxxix] In countering this statement, Fayek Al Mabouh, refuses against the accusations of his brother’s involvement with gangs or crime, stating that these are just excuses. In the end, according to him, it seems simple; “so who had an interest in killing him? Israel.”[xl] But for what; what is it worth? In the article After Dubai hit, Israeli question Mossad methods(KT), Yossi Melman, author of two books on Mossad, gives attention to a question that should be raised; “does Israel’s assassinations policy pay off?”[xli]

A Military Shopping-Spree

So why was Mabhouh in Dubai anyway? To go shopping in the lavish Emirate, of course, according to Dubai officials. The article Dubai police wants Degan arrestedI(JP) claims that he was transiting through the Emirate, via China, and “just went shopping and returned to his hotel, where the crime took place.”[xlii] But what exactly was Mabhouh shopping for? Dubai authorities do not say for sure, but The Jerusalem Post has its suspicions that the Hamas leader was there purchasing weaponry. A passage from the article Security and Defense; Espionage, with a smile(JP) directly ties in with the classic Iranian mantra, wherein the assassinations “cannot be viewed as isolated incidents in the war on terrorism, but are part of a larger battle that the country is waging against the Iranian-led axis.”[xliii] In the article Security and Defense; Espionage, with a smile(JP), Yoram Schweitzer, said that Mabhouh had a prestigious position, closely connected to the Iranians. One example of this was his smuggling weaponry into Gaza, via Sudan and Iran.”[xliv] The article Liberman: No reason to think Mossad killed Mabhouh(JP) continues on saying that “Hamas and Iran have blamed Israel for Mabhouh's death.”[xlv] To counter this, Israel claims that, in the article Mabhuh killers to be found in Israel: Dubai police(KT), the murder of Mabhouh is regarded as “a key link in a weapons smuggling chain into the Gaza Strip that is controlled by the Islamist movement Hamas.”[xlvi]

Outsiders Involved on the Inside

In addition to the conspiracy theory of the Hamas-Iran evil axis, there are various other conspiracy plots that have surfaced via the media, regarding suspicious outsiders involved in the assassination. The article Britain knew about Mossad hit(JP) states that the “media frenzy over the issue, especially in Britain, was being fueled by Dubai, which was carefully leaking select pieces of information to promote its own investigation.”[xlvii] Since Dubai is the only involved party that has access to the official videos, they decide what information the world will learn from. So this being the case, what conspiracy theories could they have been responsible for brewing up?

The article Killing blamed on Hamas traitor as passport showdown looms(LI) recognizes that amid Khater’s strong beliefs that Mossad killed Mabhouh, he believes that even the involvement of outsiders on the inside would not change such facts; “if the Mossad succeeded in enlisting some followers, whether Palestinians or from other nationalities, that doesn't change the reality at all.[xlviii] The article 6 more assassins added to Dubai wanted list(JP) accuses Palestinians for the murder. Two Palestinians were arrested in Jordan, for their suspected involvement in the murder of Mabhouh. However, Hamas has denied these allegations, but “according to unconfirmed reports, the Palestinians were in contact with the assassins on the day of the killing.”[xlix] Whether they were in contact or not is uncertain, and thus in the article Killing blamed on Hamas traitor as passport showdown looms(LI), Hamas was quoted saying that they “vigorously denied that a renegade from its own ranks helped set up the assassination.”[l] In the article Dubai police: Soon we’ll have proof against Mossad(JP) it is said that “two ex-officers from Fatah were involved in Mabhouh’s assassination, and Fatah shot back by insinuating that Hamas members were the ones who had collaborated with the killers.”[li] The article Killing blamed on Hamas traitor as passport showdown looms(LI) seconds Fatah’s suspicions of Hamas’ involvement; “Fatah had also made similar suggestions about a Hamas insider being involved in the planning for the assassination.”[lii]

In the article The moment Mossad agents got their man?(IL), Emirati police chief Dahi Khalfan Tamim “did not directly accuse Mossad of culpability but declared that “leaders of certain countries gave orders to their intelligence agents to carry out the killing.”[liii] The article After Dubai hit, Israeli question Mossad methods(KT) highlights how the potential involvement of other actors, aside from Fatah, Hammas and Mossad. The article notes that Israeli Foreign Minister Avigdor Lieberman did not deny Mossad involvement in Mabhouh’s death but tried to deflect attention, implying in a radio interview that “some other intelligence service or another country” may have had a role.”[liv] The article Killing blamed on Hamas traitor as passport showdown looms(LI) notes the involvement of Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu, who could have “personally authorized the assassination.”[lv] Keeping in tune with government involvement, in the article Britain knew about Mossad hit(JP), it is said that a Mossad agent said “the British government was told very, very briefly before the operation what was going to happen.”[lvi] These allegations are rooted in the fact that the assassins used 11 fake passports from Britain, France, Germany and Ireland. This left the victims of such fraud feeling “in a daze,” “angry, upset and scared,” says the article The moment Mossad agents got their man?(LI).[lvii] The article Liberman: No reason to think Mossad killed Mabhouh(JP) quoted that “most of the identities appear to be stolen and at least seven matched up with real people in Israel who claim they are victims of identity theft.”[lviii] In Dubai 99% sure Mossad killed Mabhouh(JP) it is noted that “only the British passports, however were believed to have involved stolen identities.”[lix]

Identity Fraud; When Serious becomes Humorous

In terms of identity whitewashing, the article Dubai Police identify 4 Suspects behind Mabhouh’s murder(KT) only notes that the suspects who killed Mabhouh wore masks.[lx] The article Analysis: So did the Mossad do it?(JP) explains how the assassins played with the fraudulent identities; “at least two of them were seen in tennis togs, and it is quite ironic that the news of their “identities” broke this week, during the Dubai Tennis Championships.”[lxi] The moment Mossad agents for their man?(LI) explains how the assassins are dressed and act like “sporting tourists, [carrying] sports bags and tennis rackets.”[lxii] Is this humorous, tactical or both? According to Analysis: So did the Mossad do it?(JP), the ways in which the assassins played with identity was certainly entertaining; “at least two of them were seen in tennis togs, and it is quite ironic that the news of their “identities” broke this week, during the Dubai Tennis Championships.”[lxiii] The article Dubai cameras shine light on killers’ dark art(KT) pokes fun at the assassins personas, saying that the “shorts-wearing tennis players” and others involved “look forgettable. Not too smart, not too dowdy. Like anyone.” The ways in which the killers were dressed proved to be done on purpose, according to former U.S. intelligence officer Robert Ayers, as “the best intelligence agent in the world is five foot six, balding and pudgy.”[lxiv]

The article Supermarket ad mimics Dubai assassination(LI), highlights the humor that came from the characterization used by the assassins as disguise. A TV commercial for an Israeli Mahsaney Kimat Hinam supermarket chain broadcasts “actors wearing wigs and hats and carrying tennis rackets as they make their way through store aisles. “We offer killer prices,” announced the advertisement's tagline.”[lxv] The commercial also highlights the common mantra of neither confirming nor denying; the woman who walks the isle ways “mimics Israel's policy of neither confirming or denying involvement in the assassination, saying she “couldn't admit to anything.”[lxvi] This commercial is expected to air on Israeli television at the end of March, during Passover, and thus proves that Israelis are proud of the actions allegedly carried out by Mossad.

Conclusion

Overall, how did these newspapers form public opinion? Through mantras, of course, which after careful analysis, were all quite complementary of each other. So did Mossad kill Mabhouh? This is a question left for the audience to answer, after fully participating in the mantra inspired game of connect-the-dots that surfaced in Dubai. All three papers had sensationalist ways of describing the murder. The Jerusalem Post and The London Independent both publish articles that prove Mossad is neither confirming nor denying their responsibility and role in the assassination. The Jerusalem Post and Khaleej Times both agree that this murder was linked to the greater agenda of Israeli policy and that Mabhouh was guilty for the murder of two Israeli soldiers long ago, and also for smuggling arms into Gaza. The Jerusalem Post was the only paper to go in depth about the theory that Mabhouh’s tied with Iran and his reason for visiting the Emirate being to buy weaponry. All three newspapers highlight conspiracy theories, of outside actors involved in the killing of Mabhouh, along with or aside from, Mossad’s involvement. Both The Jerusalem Post and The London Independent published that Palestine, Fatah and Hamas could very well have been involved in the assassination. Both The London Independent and Khaleej Times quote Emirati police chief Dahi Khalfan Tamim, saying that Mossad and other outside actors were almost certainly involved in the killing, including both the Israeli and British governments. All three papers highlight the costume disguise that the assassins were wearing during the day of the assassination, but The London Independent goes on further to explain how the actors are being mimicked in Israel.



[i] “Keep Dubai Safe.” 17 Feb. 2010. Khaleej Times: Online. http://www.khaleejtimes.com/DisplayArticleNew.asp?section=editorial&xfile=data/editorial/2010/february/editorial_february33.xml>. Retrieved On: 03 April 2010.

[ii] Ibid.

[iii] Pappe, Ilian. 2006. The Ethnic Cleansing of Palestine. Oxford: OneWorld, Chapter 10: The Memoricide of the Nakba, pp. 225-234. P.234.

[iv] “Intifada.” Electronic Intifada, Palestine. Twitter: Online. http://twitter.com/intifada>. Retrieved On: 22 March 2010.

[v] Pappe, Ilian. 2006. The Ethnic Cleansing of Palestine. Oxford: OneWorld, Chapter 10: The Memoricide of the Nakba, pp. 225-234. P.234.

[vi] Levitt, Matthew. HAMAS: Politics, Charity, and Terrorism in the Service of Jihad. The Washington Institute for Near East Policy; United States of America, 2006. P.8.

[vii] Ibid.

[viii] “About Us.” State of Israel: Israel Secret Intelligence Service: Online. http://www.mossad.gov.il/Eng/AboutUs.aspx>. Retrieved On: 14 March 2010.

[ix] Trinquier, Roger. 1964. Modern Warfare: A French View of Counterinsurgency. Westport: Praeger (2006), Chapter 8: Errors in Fighting the Guerrilla, pp. 45-50. P.45.

[x] Ibid.

[xi] Ibid.

[xii] “Keep Dubai Safe.” 17 Feb. 2010. Khaleej Times: Online. http://www.khaleejtimes.com/DisplayArticleNew.asp?section=editorial&xfile=data/editorial/2010/february/editorial_february33.xml>. Retrieved On: 03 April 2010.

[xiii] Gur, Haviv Rettig. “Dubai police: Soon we’ll have proof against Mossad.” 21 Feb. 2010. The Jerusalem Post: Online. http://www.jpost.com/Home/Article.aspx?id=169215>. Retrieved On: 14 March 2010.

[xiv] Lynfield, Ben. “Killing blamed on Hamas traitor as passport showdown looms.” 22 Feb. 2010. The London Independent: Online. http://www.independent.co.uk/news/world/middle-east/killing-blamed-on-hamas-traitor-as-passport-showdown-looms-1906486.html>. Retrieved On: 03 April 2010.

[xv] “Mabhuh killers to be found in Israel: Dubai police.” Khaleej Times: Online. 27 Feb. 2010. http://www.khaleejtimes.com/DisplayArticleNew.asp?
section=theuae&xfile=data/theuae/2010/february/theuae_february857.xml>. Retrieved On: 06 April 2010.

[xvi] Sengupta, Kim and Macintyre, Donald. “The moment Mossad agents for their man?” 17 Feb. 2010. The London Independent: Online. http://www.independent.co.uk/news/world/middle-east/the-moment-mossad-agents-got-their-man-1901727.html>. Retrieved On: 03 April 2010.

[xvii] Lynfield, Ben. “Killing blamed on Hamas traitor as passport showdown looms.” 22 Feb. 2010. The London Independent: Online. http://www.independent.co.uk/news/world/middle-east/killing-blamed-on-hamas-traitor-as-passport-showdown-looms-1906486.html>. Retrieved On: 03 April 2010.

[xviii] Katz, Yaakov. “Security and Defense; Espionage, with a smile.” 02 Feb. 2010. The Jerusalem Post: Online. http://www.jpost.com/Home/Article.aspx?id=168063>. Retrieved On: 14 March. 2010.

[xix] “Don’t assume Mossad killed Mabhouh.” 17 Feb. 2010. The Jerusalem Post: Online. http://www.jpost.com/Home/Article.aspx?id=168958>. Retrieved On: 14 March. 2010.

[xx] Conway, Maura. 2003. ‘Cybercortical Warfare: Hizbollah’s Internet Strategy’ Paper, presented at the European Consortium for Political Research (ECPR) 2003 Joint Workshop ‘The Changing Media and Civil Society,’ Edinburgh, 28 March to 2 April. http://www.essex.ac.uk/ecpr/events/jointsessions/paperarchive/edinburgh/ws20/Conway.pdf>. P.13.

[xxi] Wolfsfeld, Gadi. 1997. The Media and Political Conflict. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, Chapter 2: The Cultural dimension: the struggle over meaning, pp. 31-55. P.32.

[xxii] Katz, Yaakov. “Security and Defense; Espionage, with a smile.” 02 Feb. 2010. The Jerusalem Post: Online. http://www.jpost.com/Home/Article.aspx?id=168063>. Retrieved On: 14 March. 2010.

[xxiii] Doland, Angela. “Interpol seeks 16 over Dubai assassination.” 9 March 2010. The London Independent: Online. http://www.independent.co.uk/news/world/middle-east/interpol-seeks-16-over-dubai-assassination-1918365.html>. Retrieved On: 03 April 2010.

[xxiv] “Don’t assume Mossad killed Mabhouh.” 17 Feb. 2010. The Jerusalem Post: Online. http://www.jpost.com/Home/Article.aspx?id=168958>. Retrieved On: 14 March. 2010.

[xxv] “The Listening Post – Dubai Hamas murder mystery.” 26 Feb. 2010. AlJazeeraEnglish’s Channel: Online, YouTube. http://www.youtube.com/user/AlJazeeraEnglish#p/search/2/HXvnFoUkln0>. Retrieved On: 19 March 2010.

[xxvi] “Murder Mossad-style: Spy expert on Dubai clock-and-dagger story.” 13 March 2010. RussiaToday Channel: YouTube Online. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FqlSGdT6UgM>. Retrieved On: 22 March 2010.

[xxvii] Ibid.

[xxviii] Lynfield, Ben. “Killing blamed on Hamas traitor as passport showdown looms.” 22 Feb. 2010. The London Independent: Online. http://www.independent.co.uk/news/world/middle-east/killing-blamed-on-hamas-traitor-as-passport-showdown-looms-1906486.html>. Retrieved On: 03 April 2010.

[xxix] Deitch, Ian. Supermarket ad mimics Dubai assassination. 11 March 2010. The London Independent: Online. http://www.independent.co.uk/news/world/middle-east/supermarket-ad-mimics-dubai-assassination-1919470.html>. Retrieved On: 03 April 2010.

[xxx] “The Listening Post – Dubai Hamas murder mystery.” 26 Feb. 2010. AlJazeeraEnglish’s Channel: Online, YouTube. http://www.youtube.com/user/AlJazeeraEnglish#p/search/2/HXvnFoUkln0>. Retrieved On: 19 March 2010.

[xxxi] Katz, Yaakov. “Security and Defense; Espionage, with a smile.” 02 Feb. 2010. The Jerusalem Post: Online. http://www.jpost.com/Home/Article.aspx?id=168063>. Retrieved On: 14 March. 2010.

[xxxii] Agarib, Amira. “Dubai Police identify 4 Suspects behind Mabhouh’s murder.” 01 Feb. 2010.http://www.khaleejtimes.com/DisplayArticleNew.asp?section=theuae&xfile=data/theuae/2010/february/theuae_february26.xml>. Retrieved On: 03 April 2010.

[xxxiii] “Mahmoud Al Mabhouh Biography.” Al-Qassam, Ezzedeen Al Qassam Brigades: Online. http://qassam.ps/martyr-339-Mahmoud_Al_Mabhouh.html>. Retrieved On: 14 March 2010.

[xxxiv] Katz, Yaakov. “Security and Defense; Espionage, with a smile.” 02 Feb. 2010. The Jerusalem Post: Online. http://www.jpost.com/Home/Article.aspx?id=168063>. Retrieved On: 14 March. 2010.

[xxxv] “Murder Most Foul.” 01 Feb. 2010. Khaleej Times: Online. http://www.khaleejtimes.com/DisplayArticleNew.asp?section=editorial&xfile=data/editorial/2010/february/editorial_february1.xml>. Retrieved On: 03 April 2010.

[xxxvi] Hanania, Ray. “From Dubai to Twitter – what’s real?” 02 March 2010. The Jerusalem Post: Online. http://www.jpost.com/Home/Article.aspx?id=170032>. Retrieved On: 14 March 2010.

[xxxvii] “After Dubai hit, Israeli question Mossad methods.” 17 Feb. 2010. Khaleej Times: Online.http://www.khaleejtimes.com/DisplayArticleNew.asp?
section=theuae&xfile=data/theuae/2010/february/theuae_february509.xml>. Retrieved On: 03 April 2010.

[xxxviii] “Don’t assume Mossad killed Mabhouh.” 17 Feb. 2010. The Jerusalem Post: Online. http://www.jpost.com/Home/Article.aspx?id=168958>. Retrieved On: 14 March. 2010.

[xxxix] Agarib, Amira. “Dubai Police identify 4 Suspects behind Mabhouh’s murder.” 01 Feb. 2010. Khaleej Times: Online.http://www.khaleejtimes.com/DisplayArticleNew.asp?
section=theuae&xfile=data/theuae/2010/february/theuae_february26.xml>. Retrieved On: 03 April 2010.
[xl] Ibid.
[xli] “After Dubai hit, Israeli question Mossad methods.” 17 Feb. 2010. Khaleej Times: Online.http://www.khaleejtimes.com/DisplayArticleNew.asp?
section=theuae&xfile=data/theuae/2010/february/theuae_february509.xml>. Retrieved On: 03 April 2010.
[xlii] Lappin, Yaakov. “Dubai police wants Degan arrested.” 19 Feb. 2010. The Jerusalem Post: Online. http://www.jpost.com/Home/Article.aspx?id=169099>. Retrieved On: 14 March 2010.

[xliii] Katz, Yaakov. “Security and Defense; Espionage, with a smile.” 02 Feb. 2010. The Jerusalem Post: Online. http://www.jpost.com/Home/Article.aspx?id=168063>. Retrieved On: 14 March. 2010.

[xliv] Ibid.

[xlv] “Liberman: No reason to think Mossad killed Mabhouh.” 17 feb. 2010. The Jerusalem Post: Online. http://www.jpost.com/Home/Article.aspx?id=168951>. Retrieved On: 14 March 2010.

[xlvi] “Mabhuh killers to be found in Israel: Dubai police.” Khaleej Times: Online. 27 Feb. 2010. http://www.khaleejtimes.com/DisplayArticleNew.asp?
section=theuae&xfile=data/theuae/2010/february/theuae_february857.xml>. Retrieved On: 06 April 2010.

[xlvii] Paul, Jonny. “Britain knew about Mossad hit.” 19 Feb. 2010. The Jerusalem Post: Online. http://www.jpost.com/Home/Article.aspx?id=169139>. Retrieved On: 14 March 2010.

[xlviii] Lynfield, Ben. “Killing blamed on Hamas traitor as passport showdown looms.” 22 Feb. 2010. The London Independent: Online. http://www.independent.co.uk/news/world/middle-east/killing-blamed-on-hamas-traitor-as-passport-showdown-looms-1906486.html>. Retrieved On: 03 April 2010.

[xlix] Lappin, Yaakov. “6 more assassins added to Dubai wanted list.” The Jerusalem PostL Online. 18 Feb. 2010. http://www.jpost.com/Home/Article.aspx?id=169002>. Retrieved On 14 March 2010.

[l] Lynfield, Ben. “Killing blamed on Hamas traitor as passport showdown looms.” 22 Feb. 2010. The London Independent: Online. http://www.independent.co.uk/news/world/middle-east/killing-blamed-on-hamas-traitor-as-passport-showdown-looms-1906486.html>. Retrieved On: 03 April 2010.

[li] Gur, Haviv Rettig. “Dubai police: Soon we’ll have proof against Mossad.” 21 Feb. 2010. The Jerusalem Post: Online. http://www.jpost.com/Home/Article.aspx?id=169215>. Retrieved On: 14 March 2010.

[lii] Lynfield, Ben. “Killing blamed on Hamas traitor as passport showdown looms.” 22 Feb. 2010. The London Independent: Online. http://www.independent.co.uk/news/world/middle-east/killing-blamed-on-hamas-traitor-as-passport-showdown-looms-1906486.html>. Retrieved On: 03 April 2010.

[liii] Sengupta, Kim and Macintyre, Donald. “The moment Mossad agents for their man?” 17 Feb. 2010. The London Independent: Online. http://www.independent.co.uk/news/world/middle-east/the-moment-mossad-agents-got-their-man-1901727.html>. Retrieved On: 03 April 2010.

[liv] “After Dubai hit, Israeli question Mossad methods.” 17 Feb. 2010. Khaleej Times: Online.http://www.khaleejtimes.com/DisplayArticleNew.asp?
section=theuae&xfile=data/theuae/2010/february/theuae_february509.xml>. Retrieved On: 03 April 2010.

[lv] Lynfield, Ben. “Killing blamed on Hamas traitor as passport showdown looms.” 22 Feb. 2010. The London Independent: Online. http://www.independent.co.uk/news/world/middle-east/killing-blamed-on-hamas-traitor-as-passport-showdown-looms-1906486.html>. Retrieved On: 03 April 2010.

[lvi] Paul, Jonny. “Britain knew about Mossad hit.” 19 Feb. 2010. The Jerusalem Post: Online. http://www.jpost.com/Home/Article.aspx?id=169139>. Retrieved On: 14 March 2010.

[lvii] Sengupta, Kim and Macintyre, Donald. “The moment Mossad agents for their man?” 17 Feb. 2010. The London Independent: Online. http://www.independent.co.uk/news/world/middle-east/the-moment-mossad-agents-got-their-man-1901727.html>. Retrieved On: 03 April 2010.

[lviii] “Liberman: No reason to think Mossad killed Mabhouh.” 17 feb. 2010. The Jerusalem Post: Online. http://www.jpost.com/Home/Article.aspx?id=168951>. Retrieved On: 14 March 2010.

[lix] “Dubai 99% sure Mossad killed Mabhouh.” 18 Feb. 2010. The Jersualem Post: Online. http://www.jpost.com/Home/Article.aspx?id=169012>. Retrieved On: 14 March 2010.

[lx] Agarib, Amira. “Dubai Police identify 4 Suspects behind Mabhouh’s murder.” 01 Feb. 2010. Khaleej Times: Online.http://www.khaleejtimes.com/DisplayArticleNew.asp?
section=theuae&xfile=data/theuae/2010/february/theuae_february26.xml>. Retrieved On: 03 April 2010.

[lxi] Line, Steve. “Analysis: So did the Mossad do it?” 18 Feb. 2010. The Jerusalem Post: Online. http://www.jpost.com/Home/Article.aspx?id=169000>. Retrieved On: 14 March 2010.

[lxii] Sengupta, Kim and Macintyre, Donald. “The moment Mossad agents for their man?” 17 Feb. 2010. The London Independent: Online. http://www.independent.co.uk/news/world/middle-east/the-moment-mossad-agents-got-their-man-1901727.html>. Retrieved On: 03 April 2010.

[lxiii] Line, Steve. “Analysis: So did the Mossad do it?” 18 Feb. 2010. The Jerusalem Post: Online. http://www.jpost.com/Home/Article.aspx?id=169000>. Retrieved On: 14 March 2010.

[lxiv] “Dubai cameras shine light on killers’ dark art.” 28 Feb. 2010. Khaleej Times: Online. http://www.khaleejtimes.com/DisplayArticleNew.asp?section=theuae&xfile=data/theu
ae/2010/february/theuae_february874.xml>. Retrieved On: 06 April 2010.

[lxv] Deitch, Ian. “Supermarket ad mimics Dubai assassination.” 11 March 2010. The London Independent: Online. http://www.independent.co.uk/news/world/middle-east/supermarket-ad-mimics-dubai-assassination-1919470.html>. Retrieved On: 03 April 2010.

[lxvi] Ibid.

Jaclyn Nardone is an MA candiadate at the University for Peace and a regular contributor to the Peace and Conflict Monitor.
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