Strategies for building awareness for the potential of peace education in Cameroon Ben Oru Mforndip
Special Report
Has Democracy Enhanced Development in Africa? Conrad John Masabo
Permanent Emergency Powers in France: The ‘Law to Strengthen Internal Security and the Fight Against Terrorism’ and the Protection of Human Rights Lena Muhs
Women’s Political Representation in Sri Lanka: Leading towards Prosperity or Peril Pujika Rathnayake
On the Migrant Crisis Daniel Bagheri Sarvestani
Book Review
Inclusive Transitional Justice through Truth Commissions: A Book Review Amos Izerimana

UN Reform Simon Stander
Was it permissible for The United Nations to authorize humanitarian intervention in the post-election conflict in Cote d’ivoire? Dramane Ouattara
Special Report
Reflections of Refugees in Africa Wyclife Ong'eta Mose
Challenges and prospects of AU to implement the Ezulwini Consensus: The case of collective security and the use of force Tunamsifu Shirambere Philippe
The Right to Food Shant Melkonian
Freedom of Expression Under Threat in Zambia Mariateresa Garrido
Douglas Janoff on LGBTQIA Human Rights Luciana Téllez
Common Things: Communication, Community, Communal Peacebuilding Lina Patricia Forero Martínez
Lack of empathy as a threat to peace Victoria Scheyer
Comment II
The death of democracy in Honduras Daniel Bagheri S.
Research Summary
Water Security in the Sixaola River Basin Adrián Martinez Blanco and Diana Ubico Durán
Reborn Arunima Chouguley
An Open Letter to the American People: Political Responsibility in the Nuclear Age Richard Falk, David Krieger, and Robert Laney


  • Men Who Hate Women: Gender, Empathy, & Power in The United States' Rape Culture 03/28/2015
    In the United States, gender defines far more than how people dress, or the roles they must assume in their intimate relationships. Gender socialization sets the stage for how individuals think and interact with the world around them. In the United States, male gendering socializes aggression, domination, and hatred for women. This paper examines the role of socializing hegemonic masculinity in eliminating empathy and fostering entitlement resulting in what is known as rape culture. By examining socialization and men's violence against women within a cultural context, gender-based violence can be seen as a societal problem, not an issue of maladapted individuals.

  • Challenges and prospects of AU to implement the Ezulwini Consensus: The case of collective security and the use of force 05/20/2014

    The "Ezulwini Consensus" has endorsed the Responsibility to protect (R2P) that recognizes the "right to intervene when a State is unwilling or unable to protect its populations" from genocide, war crimes, ethnic cleansing and crimes against humanity. In such situations, the Ezulwini Consensus emphasizes that regional organizations in areas of proximity to conflicts should be empowered to take action. However, the conflict situation in the Eastern DRC has challenged the ICGLR to implement the Ezulwini Consensus. The ICGLR was unable to take appropriate action against Member States who were providing support to armed groups destabilizing other Member States. In order to protect the population under imminent threat and maintain the Great Lakes Region as a specific zone of reconstruction and development, Member States of the ICGLR could demonstrate their political will to respect the fundamental principles particularly of the territorial integrity, national sovereignty, non-interference and non-aggression against another Member State. Besides, the AU could have taken its own responsibility by sending African Experts in order to help the ICGLR to resolve the crisis as the mediator between the Government of the DRC and M23 was no longer neutral.

    This paper was presented at the South African Association of Political Studies (SAAPS) 2013 Regional Colloquium on “The African Union: Quo Vadis - the next 50 years” at the University of South Africa on 4 October 2013.

  • Devolution and the new Constitutional Dispensation in Zimbabwe 03/05/2014
    Dr Jephias Mapuva and Loveness Muyengwa-Mapuva discuss the potential of Zimbabwe's 2013 constitutional reform to decentralize governmental powers and bolster democratic participation in local governance while also recognizing the many challenges to its implementation.

  • Understanding the 2013 Coup d’état in the Central African Republic 01/17/2014
    This article explores the political and economic motives behind the March 2013 Coup D'état in the Central Africa Republic, and the formation of the Séléka. This analysis also addresses the many social grievances of the country and looks towards the potential for continued unrest.

  • Movement: Women, desertification, participatory democracy, mobile pastoralists, and Iran 09/27/2013
    In Iran, desertification is the backdrop to some of the most important social issues of the day. Sierra Ramirez analyzes its connection to new democracy movements, nomadic cultures, gender relations, and more.

  • A Case for Civil Disobediences: Embracing the Power of Nonviolent Revolutions 06/12/2013
    This article discusses the shortcomings of violent social struggles - their relative exclusivity, vulnerability to foreign manipulation for geostrategic goals, and their likelihood (if successful) to establish similarly repressive and violent regimes to the ones they seek to overthrow. These are then juxtaposed with the relative merits of nonviolent struggles - their inclusivity, self-sufficiency, and compatibility with democratic structures of governance.

  • The Argentine Transition to Democracy: Half-Steps, Breakdown and Revival 03/22/2012
    Miranda Ronghi offers deep analysis into the precedent-setting truth and reconciliation process as experienced in Argentina’s decades-long transition to democracy following a violently repressive military dictatorship.

  • Transforming Systemic Inadequacy in International Peacebuilding 03/12/2012
    Since the end of the Cold War, the outbreak of new wars has generated an extensive need for international peacebuilding missions. Most of these peacebuilding missions, however, have proved to constitute operational and systemic failures (e.g. Rwanda, Tajikistan, Somalia, Sri Lanka). On top of that, owing to the current New World Order and its implied structural changes, the traditional conceptions of peacebuilding will provide even more inept responses for failed and fragile States. Through a bipartite structure, this paper exploits the underlying reasons for the failure of peacebuilding by categorizing it into three main models. As a response to this failure, Alexandra Dobra develops a new model, the Meta->Micro Evolutionary System, which aims to systemically improve the conduct of peacebuilding, through substantiating the existence of a self-sustained and mutually-alternating dyad. The Meta-Micro Evolutionary System codifies ex-ante the conduct of peacebuilding and therefore constitutes a prescriptive tool.
  • Corruption: ‘Smoke and Mirrors’ Symptom of a Diseased Neoliberal World Order 02/15/2012
    In critique of the corruption-causes-poverty narrative, Tara Ruttenberg exposes the international community's misguided attempts to combat poverty and inequality through the unfruitful anti-corruption policy agenda currently championed by leading development agencies.

  • Recognition of Statehood or Recognition for Statehood: The Legal Strategy behind Palestine’s Application for UN Full Membership 01/12/2012
    UPeace graduate student Bernard Ntahiraja examines the legal basis behind the strategic 2011 application for full membership of Palestine within the United Nations. He concludes that strategy as opposed to a sincere legal claim to statehood inspired Palestine's bid before the UN, with the clear objective of accelerating the process toward true international recognition of a Palestinian state.

  • Unheard Voices from Syria and the Middle East 12/13/2011
    University for Peace PhD Candidate Harout Akdedian presents grassroots perspectives on the Syrian crisis and an analysis of today’s socio-political reality in the Middle East.

  • New Wars, Old Wars: Is the Distinction Valid? 11/16/2011
    Alexandra Dobra, masters student at Cambridge University, provides an analysis of the relevance of post-Cold War distinctions between old and new wars, using a bipartite structure to emphasize continuities and universalities versus differences resulting from the dynamics and correlated increase in war-prone circumstances via the construction of identities and structure. She concludes that the distinction between old and new wars is valid to the extent to which the image of the nature of war is expressed via new means but that many so-called new wars reflect rather enduring patterns over the last century.

  • Safeguarding citizen participation through Government of Unity (GNU) or is democracy being violated? 07/04/2011
    There has been a recent trend in Africa where disputed electoral results are settled through the institution of Government of National Unity (GNU) formations, mostly popularized by incumbent political leaders who are reluctant to accept electoral defeat. This has led to situations where political opponents are forced to co-exist in government while at the same time creating apathy and despondency among the electorate who feel short changed by the total disregard for their will and the imposition of leaders who should have existed from the leadership positions in government through electoral defeat

  • The Community of Latin American and Caribbean States (CELAC) and Latin American Integration for the 21st Century 05/19/2011
    Tara Ruttenberg and Gustavo Fuchs analyze the creation of the Community of Latin American and Caribbean States (CELAC) within the new framework of Latin American Integration in the 21st century. They provide insight into existing regional integration initiatives UNASUR and ALBA, and provide commentary as to how CELAC represents a critical tipping point in Latin American integration free from United States dominance.

  • Climate Debt, Climate Rage, and the Wealth of Nations 09/14/2010
    Climate debt anchors on the idea that wealthy nations should pay developing nations for problems arising from global warming. As an emerging discourse, Nicola Bullard defines it as the “debt accumulated by the Northern industrial countries towards the countries and peoples of the South on account of resource plundering, environmental damages, and the free occupation of environmental space to deposit wastes, such as greenhouse gases.” In the words of Naomi Klein, “climate debt represents the most controversial among the newest ideas on how to manage this ever growing crisis. It is about who pays the bill.” Climate range on the other hand is premised on the growing antagonism between rich and poor nations on who is responsible for what portion of global warming. In short, it is about the cruel contrast between developed and developing nations, between the cause and effect of global warming.

    Climate change and the debate on reparations for the effects of global warming therefore becomes a contested site of environmental discourse. In exploring this debate, I will review some of the recent research in this area and identify key findings that may be useful in advancing our understanding of this discourse. I intend to examine trends, suggestions and examples that explain some of the pitfalls facing developing nations on their road to industrialization and wealth creation in relation to climate change. Specifically, I will explore the overlap between climate debt, climate rage, global warming and their relationship to economic advancement and further analyze the thesis that global warming causes changes in the environment that lead to conflict over resources. To do this, I will incorporate the work and ideas of people like Naomi Klein, Nicola Bullard, Todd Stern, Jesse Jenkins, Devon Swezey, Isabel Galiana, Gustavo Esteva, Juliette Beck, Simon Buttler, and many others.

    Mains words: Climate Debt, Climate Rage, Climate Change, Environment activism, conflict Global warming, Reparations, Environmental conflict ,human-animal conflict, Ecotage, Ecoterrosim.

  • Disarmament, Demobilization and Reintegration of Ex-Combatants in Conflict Affected Northern Uganda 07/01/2010
    This paper shall apply a discourse analysis of Disarmament, Resettlement and Reintegration (DRR) of ex-combatants with special emphasis on Northern Uganda, a region which has faced conflicts for over two decades. I apply knowledge and skills required to plan, manage and implement programmes for sustainable recovery of war-torn Northern Uganda. The paper will showcase skills in rehabilitation, reconstruction, peacebuilding and the role of civil society. My prior engagement in a post-conflict recovery human rights project in Uganda, as well as my experiences supporting DRR under the Amnesty Commission, will be used to address the topic from a practical point of view. The paper includes a general overview, key actors in the conflict, DRR in detail, Sexual Gender Based Violence (SGBV) issues, DRR challenges, appropriate responses or recommendations and conclusion. I believe this study will also empower me to effectively and efficiently serve in conflict management, peacekeeping and peacebuilding foras.

    Key words= ex-combatants, disarmament, demobilization, reintegration

  • Condoms and Peace in the Philippines 06/01/2010
    Daryl Dano explores tensions between religious and secular approaches to population growth, sexual health care, and women's rights in the Philippines, focusing particularly on the promotion of comdom use as a peace initiative in the country.

  • Men are an influential factor in households and community food security in the Center Region of Cameroon 05/06/2010
    For centuries the problem of food insecurity in Cameroon has been considered the woman’s problem to resolve. Men have failed to understand that they too play a crucial role in improving household and community food security because they are in control of all assets. It is therefore important to sensitize men on their key role in improving household food security and in turn they will on their own a long side women change destructive traditions and social norms.

    Keywords: Gender, food security, sustainable livelihood

  • Media Coverage, Ideological Effects, and Naxal Violence 03/05/2010
    Recently, the violent activities of left wing extremist in India have increased. The continual violent activities of these groups have attracted much media attention. The movement has been given front-page coverage in the print media and the broadcast in prime time televised news. This paper argues that the increased coverage of Naxal activities has produced ideological effects which further strengthen mobilising the cadres and sympathisers of Naxal, consequently, increasing the frequency of violence.

  • Exclusion in the Dutch Educational System 11/08/2009
    This paper analyses the opportunities (or lack there of) granted to 'the disabled' through the current educational system. Lieke Scheewe reflects on her personal experiences and analysis of the Dutch educational system. Scheewe then adapts these findings into suggestions and possibilities to create a culture of peace through equally accessible education for all people- including the disabled.

  • Challenges to Disarmament, Demobilization and Reintegration: The Case of the Niger Delta 06/12/2009
    Are the first steps being taken to disarmament in the Niger Delta?- 'not until the UN plays an active role in the peace process', according to the militants. But it will take more than disarmament, commitment and drawn out negotiations to obtain peace in the Niger Delta. Not only are stakeholders faced with a history of corruption and bad governance, poverty and youth unemployment, but also and arguably the biggest challenge of the future: trust. Solomon Inuwa analyses, with first hand experience, the core needs to be met before embarking on the first steps towards peace.

  • Climate Change induced Disasters and Gender Dimensions: Perspective Bangladesh 05/06/2009
    This paper attempts to focus on the theoretical aspect of gender and climate change. In addition, the paper looks into how specific gender characteristics increase women’s vulnerability and how the effects of climate change affect women more severely than men. This paper will, finally, look into policies to face the challenges and mainstream gender perspectives.

  • Kenya in Crisis 02/07/2008
    An in-depth look at the background of the Kenyan crisis, disputes over the election, and the potential for re-establishing peace in the near future.