Strategies for building awareness for the potential of peace education in Cameroon Ben Oru Mforndip
Special Report
Has Democracy Enhanced Development in Africa? Conrad John Masabo
Permanent Emergency Powers in France: The ‘Law to Strengthen Internal Security and the Fight Against Terrorism’ and the Protection of Human Rights Lena Muhs
Women’s Political Representation in Sri Lanka: Leading towards Prosperity or Peril Pujika Rathnayake
On the Migrant Crisis Daniel Bagheri Sarvestani
Book Review
Inclusive Transitional Justice through Truth Commissions: A Book Review Amos Izerimana

Was it permissible for The United Nations to authorize humanitarian intervention in the post-election conflict in Cote d’ivoire? Dramane Ouattara
Special Report
Reflections of Refugees in Africa Wyclife Ong'eta Mose
Challenges and prospects of AU to implement the Ezulwini Consensus: The case of collective security and the use of force Tunamsifu Shirambere Philippe
The Right to Food Shant Melkonian
Freedom of Expression Under Threat in Zambia Mariateresa Garrido
Douglas Janoff on LGBTQIA Human Rights Luciana Téllez
Common Things: Communication, Community, Communal Peacebuilding Lina Patricia Forero Martínez
Lack of empathy as a threat to peace Victoria Scheyer
Comment II
The death of democracy in Honduras Daniel Bagheri S.
Research Summary
Water Security in the Sixaola River Basin Adrián Martinez Blanco and Diana Ubico Durán
Reborn Arunima Chouguley
An Open Letter to the American People: Political Responsibility in the Nuclear Age Richard Falk, David Krieger, and Robert Laney


  • The Right to Food 07/29/2015
    Do human beings have a right to food? What should we do with the enormous quantities of food waste our societies produce? Shant Melkonian weighs in on this important policy debate.

  • Prospects of Amalgamating the SADC and SACU 02/19/2015
    At its inception, the principal mandate of the Southern African Development Community (SADC) Treaty was to enhance regional integration within the SADC region. The initial goal of the SADC Treaty was the development of a common market, common monetary union and a common currency that would facilitate trade within the region. Equally important was the desire to form a bulwark against stronger economies from other regional groupings. On the other hand, the Southern African Customs Union (SACU) also harboured the desire to facilitate the establishment and operationalisation of a customs union, a common currency, common market and a monetary union at different times of its existence. Because of their success, the SADC and SACU are modelled after existing regional groupings such as the East African Community, taking cognisance of the meteoric economic rise of Kenya and economic reforms in Rwanda. This paper examines the possibility of collapsing SACU into the SADC bloc and the attendant duplication and overlapping of tasks by the two institutions. The paper also explores the motivating factors that have contributed to Africa’s regional integration as well as the nature of the integration process. The emphatic part of the paper is on the current challenges of SADC and SACU, notably duplication of functions and overlap within the two groupings. The paper recommends an amalgamation of the two groupings and the harmonisation of their operations and the attendant regulatory framework governing the two RECs.

  • Zimbabwe's new constitutional dispensation and children's right to education 08/22/2014
    Zimbabwe's new constitution reiterates the right to education for all citizens and permanent residents, and calls for state resources to be made available in order to fulfill this right without discrimination. What is needed now is the political will to realize the right to education for all, and to harmonize existing legislation with the new constitutional provisions.

  • Zimbabwe's new constitutional dispensation and children's right to education 08/22/2014
    Zimbabwe's new constitution reiterates the right to education for all citizens and permanent residents, and calls for state resources to be made available in order to fulfill this right without discrimination. What is needed now is the political will to realize the right to education for all, and to harmonize existing legislation with the new constitutional provisions.

  • The Law and Practice of the Devolved System of Governance in Zimbabwe 08/01/2014
    Zimbabwe's new constitution provides a legal framework for a devolved system of governance. Harmonizing with this new system, Jephias Mapuva suggests, will be to the benefit of local authorities, and the nation as a whole.

  • Ending ‘Doormat Politics’ In Somalia 02/01/2013
    Somalia has been making political and economic progress recently, with an age of peace and prosperity seemingly on the horizon. What is necessary now, according to the author, is for the Somali people to put aside the division and depression left over from years of traumatic conflict and insecurity and embrace the future.

  • Fueling Conflict in Colombia: Land rights and the political ecology of oil palm 11/01/2012
    Biofuels have been presented as a solution to many social and economic problems, and have attracted equally strong criticism. In Colombia, palm oil production has been suggested as an alternative to coca, however, as Olivia Gilmore explains, the scheme may cause as many problems as it solves.

  • Fertility and development: The legacy of structural adjustment policies in Kenya 10/01/2012
    Women and women’s bodies have become a central element in development. This article examines structural adjustment programs (SAPs) in Kenya, which sought to control women’s bodies in order to reach the desired fertility rates and economic growth. After reviewing the history and ideologies behind SAPs, as well as their contradictory application, this article argues that, when SAPs were applied to Kenya, they led to the implementation of culturally and economically inappropriate programs that were ultimately ineffective. The article concludes with policy recommendations and an overview of current movements.

  • How to Transform Drug Policy in Mexico: Suggestions to the Next President 06/04/2012
    The upcoming presidential elections in Mexico may provide an opportunity to break from the failed policies of the ongoing "war on drugs" and pursue an alternative, rights-based, and public health-centered drug policy. After discussing the social costs and self-defeating rhetoric of the "war on drugs", this paper offers some hope that a change is in the air, and makes several concrete policy recommendations for the incoming president.

  • Mexico’s “War on Drugs”: A Successful Strategy? 04/09/2012
    Researcher Pamela Huerta offers a nuanced review of Mexico’s anti-drug policy and untangles some of the many socio-economic, political, and institutional factors that have led to heightened levels of violence in the country. As the author demonstrates, the Mexican case sheds light on the larger questions of violence in the region and around the world, especially as they relate to highly profitable and illegal economic activities.

  • Youth and the Millennium Development Goals in Pakistan 11/24/2011
    Eye-opening development statistics demonstrate the stark reality of Pakistan's current socioeconomic situation. Dr. Shahbaz Israr Khan connects the dots between including youth in Pakistan's development strategies and addressing the country's poor performance on economic indicators to help set Pakistan on track to achieve the UN Millennium Development Goals.

  • The Arab Spring and the revelation that corruption is a crime against humanity 10/04/2011
    Kichere Mwita discusses the scale of corruption characterizing the ousted regimes in Tunisia, Egypt, and Libya, connects the corruption of political elites with the dissatisfaction and frustration of citizens, and argues that corruption itself should be considered a crime against humanity and prosecuted by the international community.

  • The Politics of Rice and Elections in Liberia: A Dangerous Political Seed, a Medium for Corruption and Bullet for the Demise of Governments 07/04/2011
    This article discusses the implications of the 1979 rice riot on Liberian politics, especially the increased use of rice by politicians to buy the votes of citizens. Locula argues that this practice has led to corruption of the political class and manipulation of the electorate. The author suggests that the government should pursue a policy of domestic rice production to ensure political stability and greater autonomy, and regulate the campaign behavior of political aspirants.

  • A Disaster Risk Reduction Policy for the Mount Cameroon Region 11/02/2010
    Every region and/or state needs to develop a framework to reduce risk associated with disasters or design methodologies for preventing disaster, especially with the wave of disaster spreading worldwide from natural hazards. Thus, appropriate and sustainable policy should be advocated and implemented as a way of ameliorating these unavoidable occurrences.

    Mount Cameroon usually called the “Chariot of the gods” or commonly called Mount Fako, well known for its spate of eruptions. The paper shall analyze, through historic perspectives, developmental antecedents of residents and indigenous communities of the Mount Fako, to suggest the need of an effective disaster risk reduction policy for the region.

  • Kenya's New Constitution 08/11/2010
    In the following article, John Onyando comments on the new constitution in Kenya. He argues, "Overwhelming endorsement for the new constitution could be a major turning point. But only if an ambitious long-term process made by the people for the people can protect itself from sectarianisms old and new."

  • Challenging International Law: Israeli attack on Iraq´s Osiraq Nuclear Reactor 07/01/2010
    Frankin Murianki analyzes the legality of "Operation Babylon," an Israeli attack on Iraq´s Osiraq nuclear reactor in 1981. The article scrutinizes the attack by examining customary international law, the legal reasoning of involved parties and the position of the United Nations Security Council.

    Key words = international law, self-defense, Israel attack

  • The African Court of Justice and Human Rights: Future Political and Jurisdictional Realities and Challenges 05/03/2010
    Thompson Ugiagbe analyzes the African Court of Justice and Human Rights by examining the court´s use of ratione materiae, ratione personae and ratione temporis . After a careful examination of the challenges the court faces, including accessibility, accountability and unclear provisions, Ugiagbe stresses the need for the Court to base its decisions on principles while being pragmatic in awards, so as to ensure legitimacy. He argues for the revitalization of the African Human Rights Commission as well as building the court´s capacity through training exchange programmes and internships.

  • Obama's Efforts for Indigenous Cooperation 11/16/2009
    November 5th, 2009 marked the first White House Tribal Nations Conference. This conference brought together 564 delegates from each federally recognized American Indian tribe. The first meeting of its kind in US history is a significant effort from the Obama administration to recognize Indigenous groups inside the US. Obama outlined his willingness to work together with the Native Nations to better affectively meet the needs of all US Americans, stating that the conference was “…part of a lasting conversation that’s crucial to our shared future.”

    Obama’s message for the “First Americans” included mentions of past wrong-doings and a commitment to a cooperative future, “I believe Washington can’t and shouldn’t dictate a policy for agenda for Indian Country. Tribal Nations do better when they make their own decisions.” Obama has set a 90 day time period for suggestions on how to better incorporate Native leaders in Washington’s policy-making.

    The president also addressed several issues that Native Americans have been pushing for years, including education, health care, Indian sovereignty, economic development, suicide rates in reserves, access to safe drinking water and of course land rights. The Obama administration has granted $3 billion (USD) to tribal communities to address these issues, specifically education, “I am absolutely committed to moving forward with you and forging a new and better future together. It’s a commitment that’s deeper than our unique nation to nation relationship, it’s a commitment to getting this relationship right so you can be full partners in the American economy and so your children and grandchildren can have an equal shot at pursuing the American dream.”

    This article, published in "Indian Country News" expands on Obama's conversation with the Native American leaders about land rights and reform, as well as development and sustainability issues.

  • India’s Development Diplomacy: Re-Engaging Afghanistan 05/05/2009
    The present approach of engaging regional players in Afghanistan by the United States could be scuttled by the bargaining postures of Iran, Russia, Pakistan, India and China on various issues of mutual concern. Rather than overtly depending on United States for guiding India through its AfPak strategy, India needs to proactively engage regional players- Iran, Russia and China through pro-active diplomacy, which could lead to potential joint problem solving initiatives. Also Indian initiatives could help defining issues in Afghanistan more in terms of creating value and bringing stability and security for all the concerned state parties.

  • Environmental Refugees: the human rights implications of global climate change 10/28/2008
    Key words: UN, UNHCR, human rights, environmental security, climate change, small island states, ethnic conflict, environmental refugees, internally/externally displaced people, international law.

  • Europe's second conquest of Latin America 10/07/2008
    Key words: EU, UN, agricutural policy, food crisis, Latin America, international trade, subsidies, globalization, intellectual property, democracy, regional conflict

  • Negotiation, not strikes, needed for Iran 07/30/2008
    Key Words: US, Iran, Conflict, Negotiation, Diplomacy, Oil, Nuclear, Non-Proliferation Treaty, Foreign Policy

  • Air Pollution and Climate Change: China's Policy Options 05/05/2008
    The Beijing Olympics have become a focus point for environmental policy discussions, including the enormity and complexity of the global climate change challenge. In this article, David Chalmers discusses China's contribution to climate change and the human security implications of the carbon tariffs that seem likely to result.

  • Somalia's message to the world: Get Ethiopia off our back 04/01/2008
    Ethiopia's occupation of Somalia has recieved significantly less attention from world media than other ongoing conflicts. Afyare Abdi Elmi discusses some of the reasons behind this silence and warns against the consequences of its continuation.

  • Nuclear Dangers and Challenges to a New Nuclear Policy 01/04/2008

  • Thinking about Africa 02/01/2006

  • Ten Imperatives to Prevent Deadly Conflict and Terrorism 12/01/2005

  • The Prospects for Peace and Security in the 21st Century 11/16/2005
    "Those of my generation who have been struggling in the international system for two or three decades cannot claim to have achieved a world to the measure of our hopes. I fear that, in spite of the undoubted progress made, we will leave to our successors a difficult and dangerous world which still suffers from abiding poverty for millions, injustice and threats to peace. You will have to face, directly or indirectly, the challenges and problems which we will leave in your care..."

  • The UN's Intellectual Challenge Today 10/20/2005
    The future is here, the world is changing, and the United Nations must as well. In view of that, the United Nations Intellectual History Project (UNIHP) nears completion. It identifies three types of challenges for the UN: Intellectual, participatory, and personnel. Louis Emmerij, co-director of the UNIHP, brings us this synopsis of the project and what it means for the UN.