Strategies for building awareness for the potential of peace education in Cameroon Ben Oru Mforndip
Special Report
Has Democracy Enhanced Development in Africa? Conrad John Masabo
Permanent Emergency Powers in France: The ‘Law to Strengthen Internal Security and the Fight Against Terrorism’ and the Protection of Human Rights Lena Muhs
Women’s Political Representation in Sri Lanka: Leading towards Prosperity or Peril Pujika Rathnayake
On the Migrant Crisis Daniel Bagheri Sarvestani
Book Review
Inclusive Transitional Justice through Truth Commissions: A Book Review Amos Izerimana

Was it permissible for The United Nations to authorize humanitarian intervention in the post-election conflict in Cote d’ivoire? Dramane Ouattara
Special Report
Reflections of Refugees in Africa Wyclife Ong'eta Mose
Challenges and prospects of AU to implement the Ezulwini Consensus: The case of collective security and the use of force Tunamsifu Shirambere Philippe
The Right to Food Shant Melkonian
Freedom of Expression Under Threat in Zambia Mariateresa Garrido
Douglas Janoff on LGBTQIA Human Rights Luciana Téllez
Common Things: Communication, Community, Communal Peacebuilding Lina Patricia Forero Martínez
Lack of empathy as a threat to peace Victoria Scheyer
Comment II
The death of democracy in Honduras Daniel Bagheri S.
Research Summary
Water Security in the Sixaola River Basin Adrián Martinez Blanco and Diana Ubico Durán
Reborn Arunima Chouguley
An Open Letter to the American People: Political Responsibility in the Nuclear Age Richard Falk, David Krieger, and Robert Laney


Analysis II
  • Hong Kong: Between Democracy and Autocracy 01/15/2015
    Raluca Batanoiu reviews the issues and events around Hong Kong's "umbrella revolution", as last years student-led pro-democracy demonstrations have been called, and considers their implications for Beijing.

  • The United States' Supremacy and her place in Global Politics and the Geopolitics of the International System 07/04/2012

    Following the demise of the cold war in 1990s, the United States emerged as the world’s leading power in the international system. This supremacy is partly supported by the global recognition of United States’ position as the most powerful nation on earth. America’s global supremacy is also anchored on the centrality of its role in global politics and its tremendous influence on the geopolitics of the international system. By referring to the U.S. as the world’s super power, there is an implied relational reference and positioning of the United States as the center piece of the international system. It is perceived as the grandmaster of international affairs. This paper examines the supremacy of the United States in the new world order. It argues that as a post-cold war super power, the U.S. has significant influence on global political and developmental relations that characterize the ideologically unstable and anarchic international system. The paper explores the contradictions that arise from the efforts of the U.S. to pursue common good using its military power in the attempts to restore sanity in the international system. It concludes that by climbing to the apex of the world’s top power seat, the U.S. earned itself the image of an empire builder that is assumed to have imperialistic tendencies rather than a respected overseer of the international system.

    Main Words: International development, geopolitics, cold war, globalization, polarity.

  • Reconstructing the Notion of Youth 06/01/2012
    Youth are variously described as the hope and future of our species or the most irresponsible and potentially violent of our kind. Unfortunately, it seems as though this later view has gained ground among certain social critics who see a large youth populations as potentially destabilizing to society. As Shahbaz Israr Khan argues, it's time to reconstruct our notion of "youth".

  • Progress Can Prevail in El Salvador 05/08/2012
    Last month, Paula LeRoy's article "Violence and Poverty Entangled in El Salvador" described the many interlocking challenges to peace and prosperity in the country. This article offers an inspiring range of potential solutions and practical ideas for how those challenges an be overcome.

  • Violence and Poverty Entangled in El Salvador 04/16/2012
    In the first of a two-part series, researcher Paula LeRoy discusses several ways in which poverty and violence interact in El Salvador. Of particular emphasis in this analysis is the inadequate fulfilment of the 1992 Peace Accords. The companion article (forthcoming) will assess the viability of potential responses to the issues discussed here.

  • Transitional Justice in Burundi: Expectations and Concerns 02/22/2012
    Vital Nshimirimana discusses the transitional justice process as planned by the government of Burundi for 2012. He argues that issues including ongoing insecurity, human rights abuses, lack of dialogue and trust among social partners, as well as lack of rule of law will undermine the process.

  • South Sudan’s Post-Independence Challenges: Greed or Grievance? 01/04/2012
    It is now eight months since South Sudan joined the family of nations as a newly independent state. However, as the South Sudanese struggle to find their bearings in a very unpredictable world, compounding challenges seems to be wearing heavily on them. Elizabeth Tesfaye Haile takes stock of how some of these challenges are redefining South Sudan’s dynamics, inquiring as to whether it is greed or grievance at the heart of the simmering tensions.

  • Testing Veto Power before the UN General Assembly: Mahmoud Abbas and International Law Perspectives on Palestinian Statehood 12/06/2011
    Kichere Mwita draws on theories of statehood in international law to analyze the recent bid presented by Mahmoud Abbas, President of the Palestine Liberation Organization, for full membership of the State of Palestine before the United Nations General Assembly.

  • Horn of Africa Hunger Crisis: Why the Politics of Applying Bandages Hasn’t Stopped the Bleeding 08/01/2011
    Across the Horn of Africa, between 10 and 12 million people are now affected by the worst drought in more than 60 years. As respective nations come together and the international community gets summoned to help, Patrick Mugo Mugo investigates: What is being done? Why have the leaders in the Horn of Africa yet again failed their people so miserably? Why has the UN’s global blueprint of weaning populations off humanitarian assistance been unsuccessful? And above all, are the right questions being asked?

  • People Power: Between Reality and Conjecture 07/05/2011
    The successful overthrow of unpopular regimes in many political communities through popular uprising is often adduced as evidence of the potency of people power. Oftentimes, such changes have occurred without any real social transformation. Alozieuwa argues that a change in the political leadership without corresponding takeover of the mantle exposes the contradiction in the concept of people power as a catalyst for social transformation. Alozieuwa concludes that the people, in addition to stimulating the change, must be able to take over power in order to institute the desired social order. Absence of a coherent strategy has often hindered this.

  • The Conflict in Chechnya: Confronting the Threat of State Disintegration and the Right to Self-Determination 09/06/2010
    This article focuses on the right of the Chechen people to self determination. It examines the legitimacy of the Chechens’ claim to self determination and assesses the policy actions of the Russian government toward the minority populations of the Caucasus. It also assesses the various aspects related to the legitimacy of the movements that fight for self-determination in the context of the global war on terror as well as the problem of violations of minority group rights. The author argues that current policies of the Russian government in the Caucasus do not lay the foundation for the long-lasting peace and stability in the region and are, in large part, conducive to the continuation of separatist tendencies.

    Keywords: Russia, Chechnya, self-determination, state-building, repression, human rights, identity rights

  • Politics of Transitional Justice Mechanisms from Below: The Case of Somaliland 07/04/2010
    This paper will discuss how the design and discourse of transitional justice mechanisms- which include and take into account the views and needs of civil society and affected communities- boost the legitimacy of the transitional process and the prospects for reconciliation. This process could be described as the politics of transitional justice mechanisms from below. The paper will focus on the Somaliland situation as a case study. The paper will explain both the Somaliland alternative dispute resolution (ADR) mechanism and transitional justice as well as analyze in detail how the indigenous ADR mechanism has been used as tool for political transitional justice during the reconciliation period. Lessons learned from the Somaliland reconciliation process will be briefly explained and some critiques and pitfalls of transitional justice in Somaliland will be raised. Finally, the paper will conclude with some recommendations and observations about the usefulness of the traditional and indigenous ADR systems as reference examples for political transitional justice in similar situations around the world.

  • Pragmatism and Integration for Central America’s Economic Future: Exercising Freedom of Choice 06/01/2010
    Urging pragmatism toward advantageous relations and sustainable fair trade practices with new economic allies while targeting equitable domestic development strategies, this piece identifies key policy areas where Central America is set to benefit most from its strategic positioning in the Americas and within the wider global economy. In light of the economic shortcomings and detrimental social implications associated with free trade agreements and historical dependency on the United States, this set of policy recommendations seeks a new approach. In short, Central American leaders, while eager at the opportunities, must practice caution in opening to new markets in China and Europe, while at the same time strengthening regional integration within Central America and with the rest of Latin America through bilateral and multilateral approaches geared toward diversification, wealth redistribution and economic growth with sustainable social equity.

  • Climate Change and Food Security in Peru 05/03/2010
    This paper reviews the current state of affairs of food security in Peru and discusses how Climate Change may be a threat in the short term, especially for rural farmers.

  • Biological Determinism: Gender and Peace in the Contemporary British Context 04/07/2010
    This article explores contemporary British gender relations as premised upon biological determinism. Through an analysis of the definitions of peace and violence, the link between gender relations and peace are exposed. Gender is problematised by exploring the way that scientific knowledge constructs and reinforces dichotomies of man and woman. Through a gendered analysis of contemporary British gender relations I argue that questions of gender relations are externalised and ignored. I propose that we, my generation of young men and women, need to engage creatively with our gendered identities in order to seek a more peaceful existence.

  • Electoral Violence in Nigeria: Implications for Security, Peace and Development 03/05/2010
    Election violence has remained a feature on Nigeria’s political landscape, and a review of the problem suggests a number of reasons. This article identifies poverty, a culture of impunity, weak penalties, a lack of effective governance, and small arms proliferation, amongst others. It also looks at the effects of instability and violence in Nigerian society and proffers a number of solutions ranging from sustainable development, security sector and electoral reforms, and anti-corruption measures.

  • Harnessing Youth Power for Peace: A Perspective from Russia 02/02/2010
    The energy of youth is largely responsible for powering violent conflict, as well as social movements for positive social change. As Dr Jatinder Khanna shows, the application of youthful energy to intercultural peace programs and political activism are essential for peacebuilding in Russia and elsewhere.

  • History Repeats Itself? Costa Rican History Applied to the Honduran Conflict 10/06/2009
    Whether or not the present Honduran interim government will be fully recognized by the international community remains to be seen. For the time being, however, states must still decide when and how to conduct relations with the military-appointed government, balancing concerns for pressing international issues with the expected validity and permanence of agreements made with that entity. In making such calculations, states must consider the legal status of that government as the valid representative of the Honduran State in international law. Status under law helps define how a state, and therefore its treaties, agreements and contracts, will be treated in courts, tribunals and organizations abroad. This essay uses the legal issues presented in a similar historical case, the 1923 Tinoco Arbitration between Great Britain and Costa Rica. George McGraw analyzes Honduras’ current status in international law. He argues through the application of basic international legal principles such as state continuity, effectivity, and de facto vs. de jure legitimacy. According to the author, this essay hopes to contribute to the current dialogue concerning the transitioning state.

  • New People's Army and the Philippines: No end in sight? 09/04/2009
    Noriko Hashimoto discusses the prolonged conflict between the government of the Philippines and the communist rebel group, New People's Army. After giving an overview of the long and tragic history, focusing primarily on the presidencies of Ramos and Arroyo, Hashimoto looks to the underlying factors of poverty and land distribution, and the potential for a negotiated peace.

  • The management of the Spratly Islands conflict: Success or failure? 06/02/2009

  • Globalization and Identity Mobilization in Nigeria: Muslim and Christian Youth Violence in the 1990s 04/01/2009
    Nigerian youth were directly responsible for most of the violent conflicts that straddled the socio-political life of Nigeria in the 90s. This can be partially explained by the argument that the search for economic relevance made Nigerian youth the carriers of violent identities. As such, youth were instruments that were used to transform the social structure from what it was to what it is.

    This paper is a discussion of youth and religious identity in Nigeria, and it is premised on the fact that the breakdown of the state and its capacity to arrest the declining fortune of the economy gave rise to a very religious youth who, across religious barriers, saw no other means of becoming politically active than becoming religiously active. For Nigerian youths of the 90s, therefore, there was a close relationship between political and religious processes, ultimately encouraging their participation in the violence of the era.

  • Security and Economic Development: Masculinized Goals for Post-Conflict Reconstruction 03/09/2009
    The end of an armed conflict is the starting moment of a new period that creates space for transforming institutions, structures and relationships within society. In such historical moments the actors of peace negotiations and peace building processes have the window of chance and responsibility to create a new society based on gender equality. However, in what Cynthia Enloe calls“the morning after”, when the guns are silent, the persistent militarization and promotion of masculinity continue in postwar societies, in both the public and private sphere. This paper will attempt to track such political processes and identify the tools and factors contributing to militarization and masculinization in post conflict societies. Moreover, this paper will highlight reasons for failing to consolidate women’s gains deriving from their war-time experience and to promote gender equality in peace building processes.

  • Rethinking the Administration and Delivery of Foreign Aid in Cambodia 02/05/2009
    The government of Cambodia has received foreign development aid in abundance for many years, largely contributed by a number of international aid organizations and donor states such as World Bank, Asian Development Bank, International Monetary Fund, Official Development Assistance (ODA), and Japanese as well as Chinese governments.

    Unfortunately, this aid has not served as a constructive engine to promote economic growth and development, and has not provided tangible benefits for the targeted population, the poor and the vulnerable, in the country.

    This article, therefore, presents some specific reasons for the poor management and ineffective delivery of foreign aid in the nation, and offers some viable and practical mechanisms of how foreign aid should be properly administered and distributed in Cambodian society.

  • Overcoming blanket immunity in national constitutions: Cameroon and the principle of universal jurisdiction 12/05/2008

  • Challenges to Peace in Cambodia 11/12/2008
    This article addresses the main challenges to the emergence of the positive or durable peace in Cambodia. The challenges embrace poor governance accompanied by ineffective enforcement of the Constitutional Laws, deep-rooted corruption alongside economic instability and poverty, and social injustice and inequity and widespread human rights violations. The recommendations corresponding to the aforementioned hindrances also deserve priority attention at the end of this article.

  • Switzerland's "Minaret Conflict" 10/06/2008

  • Georgia-South Ossetia-Russia: Proposals for Immediate Steps to be taken to End Hostilities and Address Humanitarian Impacts 08/22/2008
    Kai Brand-Jacobson outines some recommendations for various actors and interest groups, including the Joint Control Commission, the EU, the US, the UN, and the Media. Rather than escalating and intensifying this conflict, these groups must realize that a peaceful resolution and a return to dialogue is in everyone's best interest.

    Key Words: conflict, council, crisis, eu, georgia, ngos, osce, ossetia, peacebuilding, proposals

  • US-Russia negotiations on missile defence 08/07/2008
    Key Words: US, Russia, Security Council, Nuclear Arms, Missile Defense Shield, Human development, Arms Stockpiles, conflict resolution, Negotiation, United Nations

  • The Right to Development: can the Language of Human Rights add force to development goals? 07/07/2008
    Key Words: Human Rights, Development Goals, UN, Right to Development

  • Key Challenges to Peace in Camaroon 06/03/2008
    Camaroon is a nation of great promise for peace and stability. As Golda Keng explains, this promise is threatened by inequalities and ethnic tensions, many of which are rooted in the country's colonial history.

  • Gender and Peacekeeping: a few challenges 04/23/2008
    Drawing on her extensive experience with UN peacekeeping operations, including serving as Senior Gender Advisor for MINUSTAH, Nadine Puechguirbal discusses some of the ongoing challenges to gender mainstreaming in peacekeeping missions, and ultimately, the creation of a more just society.

  • Can the European Union be a peace-maker in the world? In Kosovo? 03/10/2008
    Jan Oberg discusses the legality of Kosovo's declaration of independence, the dangers of an increasingly militant and tactless EU foreign policy, and the continued need for creative thinking and enlightened policy reform.

  • From Annapolis to Gaza: A Cycle of Meaningless Negotiations and Harsh Repression 03/04/2008
    author : Marco Rosaire Rossi topic : Israeli occupation | Gaza | Palestine | Israel lobby | United Nations

  • Hopes and Challenges Facing Emerging Democracies in Africa and Asia 02/01/2008
    The best hope for a peaceful world where fundamental human rights are respected is for democracy to ultimately triumph in fractured societies. However, for that to happen, certain preconditions must be established including the rule of law, an independent judiciary and media, a culture that begins to ferociously resists corruption and the establishment of truly independent organs of government that can ensure a fair democratic processes.

  • Radioactive Weapons Testing in California 01/10/2008

  • The School-to-Prison Pipeline in Massachusetts 12/04/2007

  • Peace Parks: a Natural Alternative 11/02/2007

  • The “Enemy Combatant” Fraud 07/05/2007

  • From Conflict to Coexistence - An Intervention Model 03/23/2007
    Ssentongo and Raalten propose a Conflict Intervention Model to diagram conflict in its general sense. While the model is based on the idea that structural and psycho-cultural approaches are foundational to resolution, it simplifies the process by utilizing John Paul Lederach's pyramid on leadership.