Strategies for building awareness for the potential of peace education in Cameroon Ben Oru Mforndip
Special Report
Has Democracy Enhanced Development in Africa? Conrad John Masabo
Permanent Emergency Powers in France: The ‘Law to Strengthen Internal Security and the Fight Against Terrorism’ and the Protection of Human Rights Lena Muhs
Women’s Political Representation in Sri Lanka: Leading towards Prosperity or Peril Pujika Rathnayake
On the Migrant Crisis Daniel Bagheri Sarvestani
Book Review
Inclusive Transitional Justice through Truth Commissions: A Book Review Amos Izerimana

Was it permissible for The United Nations to authorize humanitarian intervention in the post-election conflict in Cote d’ivoire? Dramane Ouattara
Special Report
Reflections of Refugees in Africa Wyclife Ong'eta Mose
Challenges and prospects of AU to implement the Ezulwini Consensus: The case of collective security and the use of force Tunamsifu Shirambere Philippe
The Right to Food Shant Melkonian
Freedom of Expression Under Threat in Zambia Mariateresa Garrido
Douglas Janoff on LGBTQIA Human Rights Luciana Téllez
Common Things: Communication, Community, Communal Peacebuilding Lina Patricia Forero Martínez
Lack of empathy as a threat to peace Victoria Scheyer
Comment II
The death of democracy in Honduras Daniel Bagheri S.
Research Summary
Water Security in the Sixaola River Basin Adrián Martinez Blanco and Diana Ubico Durán
Reborn Arunima Chouguley
An Open Letter to the American People: Political Responsibility in the Nuclear Age Richard Falk, David Krieger, and Robert Laney


  • Women’s Political Representation in Sri Lanka: Leading towards Prosperity or Peril 12/04/2017
    This paper argues that greater representation of women in Sri Lanka's parliament and local government institutions, and greater gender sensitivity in general, will have substantially positive implications for the country, including accelerating the post-conflict reconciliation and recovery process.

  • Common Things: Communication, Community, Communal Peacebuilding 06/21/2017

    “I do not have thin fingers, as a farmer, my hands become part of the land and its fruits… I need this thick tombs for nurture the vegetables.” Maria Emma Prada is a “countryside lady” in her own words. A woman which has stood up for the rural women in Colombia.

    She is one of the most important leaders in Colombia of ANMUCIC (National association of indigenous, afro -descendent and peasant women of Colombia) a main organization of women of the country.

    Maria Emma is a refugee in Costa Rica since 2000. Her life and her family were threatened, on the one hand, by paramilitary groups, fuelled by the false news that emerged about her as part of the guerrilla in the national media. On the other, given her efforts to gain access for her organization to the peasant production and infrastructure government projects, the guerrillas believed that she was a collaborator and informant to the Colombian army. She had no choice but to leave the country.

    There is an abysm between the facts and the human rights discourse in Colombia. Despite that the National Constitution consecrates Human Rights as a part of the fundamental rights of Colombian people, reality is way too far of the written laws.

    Media is part of this huge gap, owe that, instead of promoting the citizen participation in accordance with an attempt of a negotiation of the armed conflict through peaceful means, it has contributed to the re -victimization of people in the countryside and people of social movements, as well that it has facilitated to all sides – guerrillas, paramilitaries and the government – to legitimate the atrocities of war by focused in heroes and villains actions.

    It is necessary that media and journalism help to rethink the country that we are and the country we want to be from a human right´s perspective in the new Colombian post – conflict scenario.

    Keywords: Colombian conflict, media propaganda, evil, grassroots media, women organizations, victims, communication.

  • Bend it Like Beckham [in a Burka]: Qatar v. Migrant Workers’ Rights – A Game of Deflection 07/05/2016
    Tags: FIFA World Cup 2022, Oatar, ILO, Workers Rights, Human Rights, International Labour Law

  • Children in Armed Conflicts: Inconsistency of the Laws, Culpability and Criminal Responsibility of Child Soldiers 06/07/2016
    This essay explores the concept of Child Soldiery and its inconsistencies under International Law, with a focus on the vulnerabilities of children in situations of armed conflict.

  • Three Approaches to the Human Security Risk of Climate Change 12/09/2015

  • From suffering to liberation: Mindfulness meditation in critical pedagogy 05/27/2015
    This article explores the problems and possibilities of implementing Buddhist mindfulness meditation in critical pedagogy. Buddhism and critical pedagogy are compared, particularly their conceptions of suffering, liberation, and self. Challenges to the adaptation of critical pedagogy in Buddhist cultural contexts are addressed. Mindfulness meditation is proposed to enrich critical pedagogy and expand its cultural applicability.

  • Refugee Protection under Islamic Law 03/06/2015
    A comparative study between the principles of Refugee Protection under International Refugee Law and Islamic Law

  • The slow peace process in Darfur: A call to turn to the local 11/28/2014
    Peace in whatever way it is perceived has remained both an aspiration and challenge in post-war international order. The combined effect of this struggle has led to constant engagement with and search for durable solutions to conflicts wherever they occur. Despite international interventions attempting to address the conflict in Darfur, and the humanitarian needs it has generated, peace remains elusive. In this article, Rose Mutayiza addresses the challenges that continue to frustrate the peace process and suggests more space be given for local voices and initiatives.The argument of this paper is that the challenges of peace in Darfur though not new, reflect to a considerable degree, institutional and normative faultiness inherent in contemporary neoliberal approaches to peacebuilding.

  • Humanitarian Assistance and Peacebuilding: Congruence as a By-product of Incompatibility 06/18/2014
    Mahmoud Abdou discusses the differences and similarities between humanitarianism and peacebuilding in both operational and ideological terms, and shows how they have increasingly supported each other in the post-Cold War era as instruments of the liberal peace approach to global governance.

  • Grassroots Movements Shedding Light on Gun Violence in Colorado 04/09/2014
    This work is my personal journey of finding hope in grassroots movements working to address gun violence in Colorado. I present a review of academic literature and question how academic research connects to people on the ground. I advocate for the potential of utilizing human emotion in academic writing to link academics to the people experiencing what academics merely research. It is my aim to amplify a few glimmers of light, within people on the grassroots level, amongst the darkness that surrounds gun violence in the United States of America. I hope that ultimately, this will begin to open up the stalled conversation of gun control by escaping the dichotomy of pro-gun and anti-gun control politics and in turn creating a space for the many other paths forward to surface.

  • Degrowth Through a Post-Development Lens 03/27/2014
    If current crises like environmental degradation and social inequality can be said to be the result of our economic and social systems, the concept of a degrowth economy has been advanced as a possible solution. Degrowth is in direct contrast to economic systems such as capitalism or sustainable growth, and in fact has much more in common with a post-development perspective in advocating for a fundamental transformation of society that will challenge the very notion of what an ‘economy’ is as well as the dominant discourses which shape our perception of reality.

  • Localities of Peace Building: Grassroots Peacebuilding between Sri Lankan Tamils and Sinhalese People 02/25/2014
    This paper is about three local peacebuilding initiatives in Sri Lanka, each focused on the personal or community level, where many Tamil and Sinhalese people share bonds of friendship and family, as well as a common love for good tea, good food, and good drama. Amarathunga uses these case studies to make a deeper point about the nature of knowledge and truth, and about the importance of local peacebuilding initiatives at the community level, rather than political or military settlement.

  • Partition through Literature 01/10/2014
    The hard struggle against British rule was marred by the division of a united India. Millions are said to have moved across the borders and lakhs of people lost their lives. This was an irreparable loss for the subcontinent. We can’t undo the partition, which is now a reality. We must learn lessons from history. The aim of the paper is to focus on the writers’ perspectives, as reflected in their stories and novels. It is interesting to note that a majority of these writers transcend the petty ethnic prejudices and are generous in portraying characters of other ethnic groups.

    Key words: Partition, Communalism, abduction, Toba Tek Singh, Train to Pakistan.

  • Dynamics between Indigenous Rights and Environmental Governance: Preliminary analysis and focus on impact of climate change governance through REDD+ 11/23/2013
    This essay discusses the question of the complex relationship between international environmental governance, sometimes referred to as “earth system governance”, and indigenous rights (section I). The two sets of norms, instruments and institutions are theoretically envisioned as complementary since they both incorporate the notion of the importance of protection of the environment and its natural resources. Emphasis has been progressively put on the natural symbiosis and correlation between sustainable development purposes and indigenous self-determination and preservation of their identities. Forests peoples’ specific connections with their lands and thorough knowledge of their natural environment are undoubtedly acknowledged and highlighted.

    It has been chosen to focus on the interplay of indigenous rights and climate change governance embodied in the UNFCCC (United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change) and its corollary the REDD+ mechanism (Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation) and the potential opportunity and/or harm it represent for indigenous communities and their rights (section II); before attempting to reach some conclusion (section III).

  • Palestine and the International Criminal Court 10/08/2013
    The Palestinian National Authority's 2009 declaration under Article 12(3) of the Rome Statute to join the ICC presented the international court with an opportunity to implement its Statute and respond to the many UN and other reports of human rights abuses committed in Palestine since 2002. As Mahmoud Abdou argues, the Prosecutor of the ICC's reaction accomplished precisely the opposite, allowing power politics to further frustrate the realization of justice and accountability in Palestine.

  • Morality in Development Aid 09/01/2013
    This paper addresses the wide gap between the good intentions of development aid and its actual consequences for the world's poor. The analysis hinges on the central question of what role morality plays in the political and economic strategies underlying the provision of development aid.

  • Is Diplomacy Gendered? A Feminist Analysis 08/04/2013
    Diplomacy is an important arena of International Relations, however it is not always well understood. This paper employs a feminist lens to develop a thoughtful response to the question: is diplomacy gendered? Firstly, I develop an understanding of diplomacy, which is then employed to a discussion of the evolution of the discipline of diplomacy from its origins in traditional state-based diplomacy to regional and multilateral diplomacy. Secondly, l draw upon leading feminists in International Law to develop the paper’s feminist framework for analysis. I then build upon this to discuss the qualities necessary to succeed as a diplomat. It will be shown that diplomacy is the product of a historically and structurally male-dominated patriarchal system. Throughout the paper, I demonstrate that diplomacy is in fact gendered, but with an unfair male preference.

  • Ecuador and the Rights of Indigenous Peoples 07/03/2013
    Ecuador has long championed the struggle against colonialism and criticized exploitative neoliberal policies in Latin America, however, the government's continued support of resource extraction on Indigenous lands have led them to repress legitimate protest movements, and to violate key legal documents including the UN Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples, and the country's own constitution.

  • Democracy in the Arab World 06/21/2013
    Majid Ahmed Salih discusses the major obstacles to democracy in the Arab world and why they should be overcome.

  • Gendered Language in the United Nations Secretary-General's Report on Sudan 06/06/2013
    This article discusses the 2005 report of the UN Secretary-General calling for a "peace support operation" in Sudan (S/2005/57), a proposal subsequently supported by the Security Council in resolutions 1547 and 1574. Hala Eltom analyses the language of this report from a gender perspective and finds that it relies on generalities that lead to policy ambiguities, and reflects the persistent gender biases of the UN as an institution.

  • Neoliberalism: The Second Pillage 05/10/2013
    This article compares neo-liberal economic globalization to the older and similar process of globalization in the era of European colonialism. The case studies of Chile under Pinochet, and Thailand and South Korea after the 1997 financial crisis are discussed to show that neo-liberalism, as an economic philisophy, has caused significant social damage and placed the goals of equitable prosperity and human development further out of reach.

  • Disunity in Palestine: Its History and Implications for the Peace Process 04/18/2013
    Mahmoud Abdou explores the history and implications of political disunity among Palestinian leadership, arguing that a united Palestine is an essential step toward peace for everyone in the region.

  • Terrorism and Violence in Iraq 03/05/2013
    Majid Salih, formerly a field monitor for the world food programme in Iraq and currently a graduate student at the University for Peace, explains how his life, family, city, and country have been affected by terrorism and violence. Salih then addresses what he feels are the primary factors motivating terrorist acts and generates a complementary set of "solutions". This analysis is meant to provide a basis for further research and reflection, and ultimately, to contribute to the reduction of terrorism and violence in Iraq and elsewhere, where enormous damage to life and social progress has already been felt.

  • Landmarks in the Historical Development of Human Rights Theory: A Synoptic View 02/11/2013
    This essay touches on conceptual debates around theories of human rights, particularly as they apply to language and universality, before presenting a narration of philosophical development towards the contemporary understanding of human rights through Greek and Roman thought, Mediaeval Europe, liberal and revolutionary individualism, and the creation of the UN system after WWII.

  • How the nonhuman made us human 12/04/2012
    Animals, plants, and the wider natural world are often reduced to mere "environment", a backdrop for human affairs over which we assume absolute superiority and dominion. In this thought provoking essay, Febna Reheem Caven argues that our physiology, psychology, identity, cultural expressions, and ultimately, our existence depend on the active collaboration of the natural world. To find peace and fulfilment, then, we will have to re-identify with the ultimate "Other" -- the nonhuman.

  • Lost in Assimilation: The Tragedy of Traditional Ecological Knowledge 10/18/2012
    The field of Traditional Ecological Knowledge (TEK), which captures the worldviews and ways of living of indigenous communities in relation to their environments, has become a glamorous concept in the lexicon of development theorists. The paper seeks to critically engage with the possibility and challenges of ‘successful integration of indigenous knowledge and ethics into modern science and culture’, highlighting two challenges in particular: the itemization and alienation of beliefs and understandings to fit within a functional and mechanistic worldview (a tragedy of parts), and the broader negative consequences of distorting cultural epistemologies of profound wisdom and relevance to the survival of our species (a tragedy of the whole).

  • Embezzlement of Public Funds: A Crime against Humanity in Cameroon 09/17/2012
    Joseph Agbor Effim studies embezzlement in Cameroon, arguing that the consequent suffering experienced by Cameroonians that follows renders it tantamount to a crime against humanity.

  • Development Aid and Human Security in Uganda 07/17/2012
    Human insecurities regarding food, water, education, and health characterise Uganda, despite the billions of aid dollars that flow into the country each year. The connection between development aid and corruption takes a central stage in this article, which shows how the intended purpose of development aid is largely diverted to meet the individual needs of elites, leaving the basic needs of the majority poor unattended to. The author concludes by boldly stating that if accountability, transparency, community participation, and good governance are not enforced in Uganda, then however much aid flows to Uganda, the common man SHALL remain in poverty and misery.

  • The Creation of the International Commission against Impunity in Guatemala: Miscalculation by a ‘Corporate Mafia State’? 06/29/2012
    This paper traces the development of the International Commission against Impunity in Guatemala (CICIG). A UN affiliated hybrid International-National quasi-judicial entity, CICIG was mandated to help investigate and prosecute organized crime groups in Guatemala and was heralded as an important step forward in the fight against impunity. This paper explores the often heard narrative that human rights groups successfully convinced first the Portillo administration and then the Berger government to agree to support CICIG, and analyzes alternative rationales. The paper suggests that the Portillo government sought to derive short term benefits from supporting the agreement but may have miscalculated in its assessment of long term risks. The Berger administration clearly derived benefits from the agreement, including the reinstatement of certain US military aid, as did the Colom administration. The paper also suggests that despite its mandate to strengthen national investigations and the judiciary system, some of CICIG's greatest successes were achieved through public actions and the eventual resignation of the founding Commissioner Castresana. The paper concludes that even though CICIG's institutional reform efforts have been piecemeal, they are significant nonetheless.

    Note: This analysis does not yet include Commissioner Dall´Anese's tenure as head of CICIG.

  • Gender Equality and the Human Rights Concern in South Sudan 06/01/2012
    Huma Rights scholar Peter Reat Gatkuoth discusses the continued gender inequality in South Sudan, as well as Africa at large, despite the traditional veneration of women as mothers and caregivers, and the existence of legal documents (including national constitutions) which proclaim the equal rights of women. The author argues that a greater focus on gender equality, using existing human rights documents, will support the development and prosperity of the nation.

  • Kony2012 and the legacy of the Rwandan Genocide 05/04/2012
    Atkilt Geleta compares and contrasts the ways in which African conflicts have been treated by "the international community", with a special emphasis on the 1994 Rwandan genocide and the Kony2012 campaign. Despite their differences, Geleta argues that there are significant, and unsettling, similarities.

  • War and Peace in El Salvador 03/30/2012
    Colette Hellenkamp delves into the complexity of violence in El Salvador, touching on both obstacles and potential pathways to constructing a culture of peace. Her analysis highlights the challenges of outflow migration, socio-economic and power inequalities, governmental ineptitude in addressing root causes of violence, rampant gang activity and organized crime, as well as El Salvador’s history of military dictatorship and violent civil war.

  • Nigeria: Fuel subsidy removal and the national crisis 03/02/2012
    Nigerians were taken by surprise earlier this year when the government dropped fuel subsidies, a move which effectively double the cost of living for many, and prompted massive protests. Labour organizations, #OccupyNigeria groups, unemployed youth, and many other Nigerian citizens have since begun to cross religious, geographic, age, and class divides to seize this historic opportunity and participate more effectively in the political process. In this article, Fatima Kyari Mohammed shares her insights, and some of her photos.

  • Towards a Legally Binding Arms Trade Treaty 01/09/2012
    Just ahead of the UN Conference on the Arms Trade Treaty scheduled for July 2012, UPEACE graduate student Gerardo Alberto Arce dissects the objectives, obstacles and limitations of the process currently underway towards the establishment of a legally binding international Arms Trade Treaty.

  • Re-Valuating Gender and the Environment: Paradigm Shifting toward a Human Rights Based Approach to Development 12/02/2011
    In her highly nuanced academic analysis, UPeace alumna Ani Colekessian delves into the historical-theoretical links between concepts of gender and the environment. She calls for a gendered, human rights based approach to development as the means to overcome the dangers of relegating both women and the environment to the misplaced patriarchal construct of an undervalued "feminine" at the disposal of the dominant "masculine".

  • Oil in Uganda: A Resource Curse? 10/03/2011
    The discovery of oil in Uganda places high hopes but also poses challenges for the country, thus it is both a blessing and a curse. Various literature and documents are reviewed in this paper to validate my personal experience and observation from the civil society perspective, that many conflicts including land conflicts, the displacement of wildlife, propaganda, a scramble by multinationals, tense political exchanges, anxiety, and high expectations enshrine the discovery of oil in Uganda. Action research and a continuous, conflict-sensitive approach can help achieve sustainable peace.

  • Is Every Child a Child? 09/12/2011
    Jerry M’bartee Locula discusses the Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC), raising questions about its universality, its practical implementation, the role of judicial proceedings in determining a child's "best interest", and ultimately posing the question of who is a child.

  • The Influence of Judicial Institutions 08/05/2011
    The purpose of this paper is to analyze the mechanism through which international institutions in general and international courts and tribunals in particular exercise influence. The paper will start with some introductory remarks concerning the philosophical roots of the concept of institution and its link with the idea of law. Using a sociological framework, the discussion will address the relations that exist between institutions and their environment and, therefore, how influence is constructed and exercised upon other entities.

  • The Theory and Practice of Humanitarian Intervention and the Interest of Western Powers: Liberia, Darfur, Rwanda, Iraq, and Libya 05/03/2011
    After arguing for the importance and potential of humanitarian intervention to bring about a more just world, Jerry M’bartee Locula critically reviews its application (or lack thereof) by the United Nations Security Council in relation to political and economic interests, particularly those of the permanent five members -- USA, UK, France, Russia, and China. As such, the discussion draws on the experiences of Liberia, Sudan (Darfur), Rwanda, Iraq, and, most recently, Libya.

  • Reparation of Victims: Seeking a Bottom-up Approach to Transitional Justice 04/05/2011
    M'bartee Locula examines the role of reparation for victims in post-conflict transitional justice initiatives, highlighting cases in Liberia and Sierra Leone. He emphasizes the need to prioritize further remuneration and justice-seeking for victims over DDR processes, which favor perpetrators, in order to foster reconciliation toward sustainable peace.

  • Emerging Socio-Economic and Political Conflicts in Tanzania 02/02/2011

  • Bamako-Mali: A need for an improvement in urban food security 12/08/2010
    Awa Mangie Achu Samba outlines a policy for urban food security in Bamako, Mali, based on participatory governance, community gardens, and improved agricultural technology.

  • The role of cultural diversity in conflict resolution in Africa 10/04/2010
    In Africa, interstate and intrastate wars have hindered economic development and political stability, causing poverty and failures in nation building. The ongoing challenges of European colonial history and ethnic division continue to fuel these conflicts. In contrary to conventional views on the cause of the conflict in Africa, however, this paper defines cultural diversity as distinct concept from ethnic diversity, and argues that cultural diversity is in fact a viable instrument of conflict resolution in Africa. Finally, it proposes peace education as a key to promoting cultural diversity for peace building in Africa.

  • Korup National Park - The Displacement of the Indigenous People: Voluntary or by Force? 09/02/2010
    Tazoacha Francis argues for participatory environmental governance in Camaroon, using the conflict between indigenous groups, the government, and international environmental NGOs as a case in point. By involving all stakeholders in an environmental governance process that respects the equal rights of all, then sustainible development will be possible in Ndian Division and the country as a whole.

  • A Gender Critique of the National Adaptation Programme of Action toward Climate Change in Post-conflict Liberia: Emphasis on the Agricultural Sector 07/04/2010
    Following fourteen years of devastation, the Liberian nation faces global climate change variability, which poses a major threat to its economic sectors, especially the agricultural sector, which is noted for its cardinal contribution towards the embellishment of the national economy (in terms of employment and the GDP). Notably, most of the workers within this sector are women, especially the rural dwellers, who are = the most vulnerable. In an effort to remedy the situation, a National Adaptation Plan of Action (NAPA) was crafted by the Liberian government, following a global climate change summit held in Bali, 2007. This plan seeks to adequately address the situation, alleviate poverty and foster the process of national recovery and development. Generally, the NAPA attempts to develop the capacity of institution and individual in an effort to address the mainstreaming of the method of adaptation into the national development planning process. However, the NAPA has failed to acknowledge the efforts and ideologies of women, especially the rural women, who are currently and greatly involved in the agricultural sector of the country. Therefore, it is important to involve the women, who are already involved, if the NAPA is to be a success in terms of its goals and objectives.

  • Al-Jazeera: the Famous channel in the Middle East 06/01/2010
    This article traces the rise of Al-Jazeera and discusses some of the controversy that surrounds it.

  • Managing Wetland Ecosystems to Guarantee Water Security in Cameroon 05/04/2010
    Wetlands are an often misunderstood and underappreciated part of the ecological life support system upon which our economies and societies depend. In this article, Tazoacha Francis discusses the importance of managing Camaroon's wetland resources wisely through raising public awareness and addressing issues of conflict and poverty.

  • Intolerably Inferior Identity: How the Social Construction of Race Erased a Rwandan Population 04/08/2010
    The creation of racial identity in Rwanda, which predated the days of the genocide, may very well have been socially constructed. Aside from considering the dominant roles that the church and media played, this essay seeks to particularly explore how the Belgian inspired identification cards were used as policy instruments, serving as one of the primary tools that aided in the genocide. Racial differences were distinctly classified between the hierarchical Hutus and the inferior Tutsis. The cards said it all; they decided the fate of who would survive the 100 days of violence and who would not.

  • To Drive, or Not to Drive; Not a Question for Saudi Women 02/04/2010
    The Wahhabi state of Saudi Arabia is the holy gem of Islam and the only country in the world that prohibits women from driving. Saudi women must wait for months at a time to do basic communal things, until their husbands, fathers, brothers or uncles are available to drive them around. The Kingdom’s chauffeur system is not a pampering luxury; it systematically defies and denies women from earning equal rights as men, via mobilization and transportation. However, protests and petitions demonstrated and signed by Saudi women, prove they are not giving up their fight to drive. But before this right can be granted, the environment must be ready for it. This essay will explore this misunderstood and confusing Saudi law, by weaving through the reasons of why women cannot drive, personal stories and scenarios on how the ban affects everyday life, and suggest recommendations as to how the Kingdom might consider going about changing its ways.

  • Female Faces of Farsi Freedom 01/11/2010
    Iran’s controversial 2009 election led to massive street protests, the launch of a new Green Movement, a new Social Media Movement (incited by the banning of traditional media from the country), and a newly inspired Iranian Feminist Movement. Women from all ages and walks of life added their voices to the protests. Zahra Rahnavard and Fatemeh Karoub, the intelligent, influential and inspiring wives of liberal leaders Mousavi and Mehdi Karroubi helped commence this eminent female uprising, and Ahmadinejad’s cabinet has recently appointed female representative Marzieh Vahid Dastjerdi as Minister of Health. As Iranian women gain more political clout, we may see a return to the days when women enjoyed positions of status and prestige in the country.

  • X-Rated Reading: Literary Censorship in Iran 11/06/2009
    Literary censorship directly affects many aspects of media, in many countries of the world. This essay explores the ways in which the Islamic Republic of Iran has silenced national and international artists, thus banning their literary creativity. Chapters of contempt and scripts of scandal are classified as those that deviate from Iran’s much respected social, political and religious traditions. Hindering the free flow of imagination, of readers and writers alike, literature is kept hidden from the masses, in the name of maintaining Iran’s conformist state.

  • John Lennon's Political Lyrics in Popular Culture: From Resistance and Activism To Incorporation and Commodification 10/09/2009
    Aside from music being used a tool for personal expression, it also has the potential to influence social and political cultures. John Lennon, musician and social activist, has proven this to be true. Over the decades, Lennon’s songs have resembled reception and empowerment of human rights, and resistance and protest against war and hate. However, Lennon’s songs have also fallen victim to incorporation within the world of consumerism, being resurfaced and reused as symbols of commerciality, via industry and production. This essay will explore the subtexts of John Lennon’s songs, the ways in which they influence generations as tools of activism and how they have been used to generate mass profit in modern day culture.

  • The Impact of Women's Movements of the Democratic Transition in Chile and Argentina 09/07/2009
    Alyssa McGary follows the fall of dictatorship and rise of democracy in Chile and Argentina, emphasizing the role of social movements -- especially the struggle for women's suffrage and equal rights.

  • Unmet Needs of Limited English Proficient Students in the United States 08/11/2009
    It is a common observation that national school systems are better able to meet the needs of some students than others -- and that certain groups "fall through the cracks". In US schools, drop-out rates for Spanish speaking students are disproportionately high, reinforcing economic and social divides between Latin American communities and the broader US population.

    Peace educator Julia Brock investigates these trends and argues that US schools should prioritize the needs of students with limited proficiency in the English language.

  • Article 2(4) of the UN Charter: Alive and Well 07/07/2009
    Some have argued that the continued use of force in international relations demonstrates that the prohibition of the use of force in Article 2(4) of the UN Charter is meaningless and outdated. Kanade counters this position with a discourse on the purpose and interpretation of international law, and argues that the UN Charter continues to offer a meaninful and effctive legal framework for confronting threats to global peace and security.

  • Some Similarities Between the Armenian Genocide, 1915-1923, and the 1994 Genocide in Rwanda 04/03/2009
    The twentieth century witnessed systematic, state-sponsored killings of specific ethnic, nationalist, or religious groups across continents and cultures. Much can be learned from the individual ideologies of hate and insecurity that led to each genocide, but as Habyarimana argues, they also share significant similarities. Ultimately, genocide is not a problem that belongs to specific times and places, but a problem for all mankind. We all have a responsibility to understand what has happened, and build a future where such atrocities are an impossibility.

  • Women in Iraq 03/05/2009
    This article introduces a gender-framed analysis of the Iraq war and continuing occupation. Through this analysis the author illustrates how the coalition forces’ ignorance of the cultural context within which their actions took place has impeded upon women’s empowerment. By analysing the conflict and occupation within the framework of honour and shame, the further argument is made that, despite the rhetoric of ‘women’s liberation’ used to justify the war, the consequences of the conflict have run contrary to any claim made to emancipate women.

    The author concludes that it is only through re-framing our analysis of the Iraqi conflict, with gender at the fore, that we are better able to understand the conflict as a whole. Further that it is only through self-reflection and a concentration on the peaceful empowerment of society as a whole that we are able to counter all forms of violence against women.

    Keywords: Gender, Iraq, Insurgency, War on Terrorism, Occupation, Humiliation, Honour and Shame, Self-reflection, Empowerment.

  • Education for water rights and environmental justice 11/05/2008
    This essay discusses an abbreviated model of education for peace and water rights.

    Parts of this essay are adapted from the author's earlier book: The Young Ecologist Initiative: Water Manual: Lesson Plans for Building Earth Democracy (Navdanya, 2007), co-authored with Vandana Shiva and Shreya Jani.

  • Discourse on the violence of eating meat 10/06/2008
    Non-violence and vegetarianism have a long history together -- perhaps best articulated by Leo Tolstoy's observation that "As long as there are slaughterhouses there will be battlefields".

    In this essay, David Chalmers argues that food politics are directly related to issues of human security, through land use policies and greenhouse gas emissions, above and beyond the inherent violence of raising animals for slaughter. For these reasons, Chalmers argues, reducing the amount of meat in our diets should be a natural point of agreement in the peace movement.

  • Democracy and peace: an over-emphasized relationship 08/29/2008
    This essay revisits the classical argument of democratic-peace in reference to more recent political events, including the US and UK led invasions of Afghanistan and Iraq, and concludes that democracy in and of itself is an insufficient indicator of a given state's likelihood of engaging in war. The message of this argument takes on an extra dimension of meaning in light of the recent conflict in Georgia.

  • Women in the Nicaraguan guerilla movement 08/07/2008
    Key Words: Nicaragua, Samoza Dictatorship, Latin America, central America, Revolution, Gender Analysis, Violence, Non-Violence

  • What if there was no UN? 06/02/2008
    Varghese Theckanath traces the history of the United Nations and briefly reviews its successes. Theckanath argues that these successes outweigh the failures and, ultimately, that the great potential of the UN to promote human development and international understanding makes it an invaluable tool in the effort to build a more peaceful and secure world for everyone.

  • Peacekeping and the New World Order 04/03/2008
    The collapse and disintegration of the Soviet Union fundamentally altered the structure of international relations and the expression of violent conflict. Where war was once considered the business of nation states, non-state actors and intrastate wars have come to the forefront of global security concerns. Givi Amiranashvili analyses the legal and political aspects of UN peacekeeping operations in this new geopolitical landscape.

  • Inclusive Education in Serbia 12/06/2007