Strategies for building awareness for the potential of peace education in Cameroon Ben Oru Mforndip
Special Report
Has Democracy Enhanced Development in Africa? Conrad John Masabo
Permanent Emergency Powers in France: The ‘Law to Strengthen Internal Security and the Fight Against Terrorism’ and the Protection of Human Rights Lena Muhs
Women’s Political Representation in Sri Lanka: Leading towards Prosperity or Peril Pujika Rathnayake
On the Migrant Crisis Daniel Bagheri Sarvestani
Book Review
Inclusive Transitional Justice through Truth Commissions: A Book Review Amos Izerimana

Was it permissible for The United Nations to authorize humanitarian intervention in the post-election conflict in Cote d’ivoire? Dramane Ouattara
Special Report
Reflections of Refugees in Africa Wyclife Ong'eta Mose
Challenges and prospects of AU to implement the Ezulwini Consensus: The case of collective security and the use of force Tunamsifu Shirambere Philippe
The Right to Food Shant Melkonian
Freedom of Expression Under Threat in Zambia Mariateresa Garrido
Douglas Janoff on LGBTQIA Human Rights Luciana Téllez
Common Things: Communication, Community, Communal Peacebuilding Lina Patricia Forero Martínez
Lack of empathy as a threat to peace Victoria Scheyer
Comment II
The death of democracy in Honduras Daniel Bagheri S.
Research Summary
Water Security in the Sixaola River Basin Adrián Martinez Blanco and Diana Ubico Durán
Reborn Arunima Chouguley
An Open Letter to the American People: Political Responsibility in the Nuclear Age Richard Falk, David Krieger, and Robert Laney


Special Report
  • Has Democracy Enhanced Development in Africa? 12/14/2017
    Whether democracy guarantees development and whether development depends on democracy remain hard to answer questions to any looking outside the continent for inspirations. From the East, we find examples of significant development without the blue prints of modern state democracy or liberal democracy while in the west we find significant contribution of the values of democracy to development endeavors. This article discusses this paradox and suggests that for Africa it is imperative to take the two on board.

  • Reflections of Refugees in Africa 12/12/2016
    Africa's numerous conflicts, including in Central African Republic, South Sudan, Somalia, Nigeria, Egypt, Democratic Republic of Congo and elsewhere, together produced immense forced displacement totals in 2014, on a scale only marginally lower than in the Middle East (UNHCR, 2015). Women, men, and children have been consigned to foreign countries for safety where their indispensable needs of humanity are becoming a luxury. Furthermore, the definition of one as a refugee has caused more exclusion of non-state communities as well as expansion of their dehumanization.This paper will explore the status of refugees in Africa in terms of legal environment, communication, schooling and livelihood. This will be a desk top review taking qualitative approaches. It will draw information from previous surveys, reports, journals, books, and case studies.

  • Nepal's recovery process since the 2015 earthquake 07/05/2016
    Tags: Nepal, Earthquake, Disaster Risk Reduction, National Reconstruction Authority (NRA), Hyogo Framework, Resilience, Preparedness

  • The Deportation Death Sentence: An analysis of the United States’ role in perpetuating Human Rights abuses against should-be Honduran refugees 02/18/2016
    The past few years have been unprecedented in the United States, as a record-setting number of Latino immigrants crossed its southern border, including thousands of unaccompanied minors. Recognizing that many of these children were fleeing severe gang and cartel violence, the United Nations began advocating for the recognition of organized crime as a potential cause for refugee status. Children crossing the border are often in need of international protection, but it goes undocumented and underprovided. In this paper, I will analyze how the United States’ unwillingness to recognize certain children as refugees is perpetuating grave abuses in human rights for children fleeing gang and cartel violence with a specific focus on Honduras.

  • Analysis of the 2014 Ebola Outbreak in Guinea, Sierra Leone, and Liberia 08/14/2015
    Melissa Weizman looks back at the Ebola crisis, identifying many of the factors that allowed the virus to spread and reviewing the efforts of several actors to address it. Weizman also places the crisis in the context of discussions around environment, development, and human rights, and offers recommendations and lessons-learned, should such an outbreak happen again.

  • Is Cyberwar Really War? 02/19/2015
    Is cyberwar inevitable? Is it even war? What about cyberpeace? This article reviews the ongoing cyber debate among security analysts.

  • Far-Right Parties in the European Parliament 01/05/2015
    Key terms: Eurosceptics, Europe of Freedom and Direct Democracy, far-right parties, political agenda, European Parliament

  • European disintegration? Separatist movements across the continent are gaining momentum 11/24/2014
    Scotland's narrowly lost campaign for independence has emboldened similar struggles for self-determination across Europe, in places like Catalonia, Flanders, and Transnistria. Thomas Wagner-Nagy asks what this trend could mean for Europe, where a complex history of disputed cultural and territorial borders continues to unfold.

  • How South Korean Agents Used Social Media to Manipulate Public Opinion and Subvert Democracy, and How the Public is Reacting 07/02/2014
    Elements of ROK's security and intelligence services have been implicated in a controversial campaign to sway public opinion through the use of social media during last year's presidential campaign. Chan Woo reports on the techniques used to manipulate the outcome of the election, and the international grassroots democracy movement that it has provoked.

  • The State of Iraqi Democracy 06/06/2014
    Ebenezer Agbeko argues that violent sectarian divisions, internal political deadlock, regional insecurity, and the legacy of foreign occupation all work against the emergence of a robust democratic culture in Iraq.

  • Contemporary Politics of Conflict in Aceh 01/21/2014
    Social and political challenges continue to affect Aceh as the region struggles to achieve peace, justice, and reconciliation, both within itself and with the Indonesian government. Michael Cornish reports on the status of Aceh's democratic transition and the complicated political forces that have arisen in the fragile peace of the last decade.

  • Darfur Humanitarian Crisis: The Need for an Integrative Approach 09/27/2013
    Despite of the involvement of the international community in the Darfur conflict a decade ago, there has been no indicator of a workable agreement despite the diversity and multiplicity of interventions undertaken both at the political and non-governmental levels. And as the attention shifted to a different region, there is an urgency to revisit the approach to its resolution in order to reach a viable accord between the conflicting parties for the purpose of preventing further deterioration of the humanitarian situation in the province, at a time where oblivion seems to prevail. In this essay I contend that an integrated strategy is needed to permanently resolve the conflict and put an end to the long lasting human tragedy. In order to, I will reexamine the main causes which lead to the worsening of the humanitarian condition while providing the necessary adjustments required for sustainable peace.

  • The “Other” Occupy 07/23/2013
    Victoria Fontan reports from Occupy Fallujah.

  • Regional Water Congress, City of Guápiles, Costa Rica 05/22/2013
    Jorge Tortós Barquero reports on the main ideas, arguments, and visions shared and discussed in the recent Regional Water Congress held in the City of Guápiles, Costa Rica.

  • Mali Conflict: Causes and Effects 03/04/2013
    Journalist Lawal Tsalha traces the history and context of the Mali conflict, clarifying the motivations and relationships between various parties, and offering some insight into the present situation.

  • War on terrorism versus civil liberties of individuals: An analysis of the Malaysian Security Offences (Special Measures) Act 2012 02/11/2013
    This article, written during the author's internship with the Malaysian Human Rights Commission, presents an analysis of the Malaysian "Special Measures" Act (2012), which compromises the civil liberties of individuals, through such powers as identifying anonymous authors on the Internet and intercepting personal communications, in an effort to ensure the security of the state against terrorist acts.

  • Rising violence and insecurity as Kenya's general elections approach 01/09/2013
    Diversity and conflicting interest are both a curse and a blessing in post-conflict and violent societies, subject to the way they are managed within an electoral process, more so during the transition period. Patrick Mugo Mugo looks at the unfolding challenges in Kenya as the date of general elections beckons (March 2013). Of particular concern is rising insecurity and violence that could end up determining who votes, and therefore who gets elected.

  • Human Rights Defenders in Burundi: Betrayers or Contributors? 09/05/2012
    Vital Nshimirimana discusses the issue of protection of human rights defenders in Burundi. He argues that human rights defenders are subject to assassinations, kidnappings, death threats and intimidations. He assesses the relationship between human rights defenders and public authorities and regrets that activists are often viewed as enemies of the country. He also argues that the state must comply with its duties regarding human rights. He concludes that since human rights defenders dedicate their lives, endeavours and means to the promotion and protection of human rights, they contribute to the establishment of a democratic society; and as such they deserve due support and protection.

    Key words: Human rights defenders, death threats, killings, intimidation, state’s human rights duties, public powers, citizens.

  • Education for young people in armed conflict 08/09/2012
    This paper examines the impact of war on the education of young people in armed conflict and also give a situational analysis of youths and children in armed conflict in the Democratic Republic of Congo, India, Colombia and Cambodia. The paper also looks at how the life of youth and children can be restored through reintegration activities, provision of formal and informal education, employment, facilitation of psychosocial training and vocational training opportunities. It provides a gender perspective of how girls and women are mostly vulnerable in conflict times and stresses the implementation of the right to education instruments such as the convention on the Right of the Child, the Human Right Convention, MDG-2, Refugee convention of 1951 and the EFA framework to enhance the education of war affected young people.

  • Somalia: Post-transitional Political Fault Lines 07/14/2012
    Somalia Special Envoy Abukar Arman reports on public perceptions of government in Somalia, the many challenges facing the states and communities in the region, and the threat of violence emanating from the fault lines of religion, ethnicity, economics, and nationalism.

  • Financing Development After the Financial Crisis 05/04/2012
    The faltering economies and tighter budgets of Europe and America, the traditional providers of development financing, have left organizations and communities wondering where the continued funding of their development projects will come from. In this special report, veteran fundraiser and development guru Jürgen Carls reviews the remaining instruments and possibilities for north-south financing, and argues that the solution may be in a completely new approach to fundraising -- an approach based on longer term relationships between funders and recipients, characterized by trust, openness, honesty, commitment, and international cooperation.

  • The Perfect Storm: Impunity and Violence against Women in Guatemala 04/01/2012
    The high levels of violence in Central America are often experssed as gender-based violence against women. This article discusses the use of violence against women as a weapon of war, as well as its presistence long into times of "peace". By adressing the problems of femicide, domestic violence, and other forms of brutality directed at women and girls, we can also address the culture of violence more generally, in Guatemala, and beyond.

  • Africa for Sale: The Land Grab Landmine 02/29/2012
    A new phenomenon is taking shape across the developing world, threatening to heighten resource-related conflict, particularly in Africa. Referred to as land leasing, land selling or land grabbing, it affects Africa more than any other region, where land is more than a factor of production, but a lifeline to an individual’s wellbeing, the family unit, the community at large and the stability of the state. In this article, Patrick Mugo Mugo exposes the extent of the land grab phenomenon, arguing that while we debate over whether it is land grabbing, leasing or selling, African countries are already stepping on a potential landmine.

  • The Occupy Protestors: When They Refused to Repeat “We Are Free”, the State Cracked the Whip! 02/03/2012
    Why would a nation that prides itself as the leader of the free world be so sensitive when a few among her population take to the streets? What about when the crackdown of the press triggers concerns, and the rest of the mainstream media coverage reveals a certain degree of misconception? To what extent have ‘Occupy Protestors’ across America revealed American society’s ‘open secrets’, and what will happen when they become ‘public truth’ to the wider American society? Thanks to the well-orchestrated institutional onslaught against it, the Occupy Wall Street movement has lost, to a certain degree, the ‘battle’ but not the ‘argument’. In this article, Patrick Mugo Mugo investigates why a section of American society has refused to repeat, as they have done in the past, “We Are Free”, and why the various attempts to get the American economy back on its feet to the benefit of the majority seems to be backfiring.

  • Half-Accomplished Libyan ‘Civil War of Liberation’ 12/13/2011
    In this provocative piece on the aftermath of the death of former Libyan leader Muammar Qaddafi, Hriday Ch. Sarma comments on projections for the future of Libya under the leadership of the National Transitional Council. Describing the current situation in the country as one of 'dormant violence', Sarma warns that "if the democratization process is not carried out with utmost caution, the multi-ethnic and presently extensively armed state of Libya will soon turn into another Afghanistan."

  • Obstacles Likely to Remain in Voting Rights for Saudi Women 10/21/2011
    Journalist Rob L. Wagner examines the feminist movement’s gains in Saudi Arabia and whether King Abdullah’s royal decree granting women voting rights can remain intact without alterations in 2015. Granting women the right to vote, run for local elections, and take seats in Saudi Arabia’s quasi-legislative Shoura Council came at a time when Saudi voter interest has declined due to the ineffective role municipal councils plays in shaping the future of local government.

  • Horn of Africa: ‘Predictable Crisis’, Unprepared Media, Curtailment of Information Flow 09/01/2011
    In times of disasters like drought and famine, a majority of the people hold that the flow of humanitarian aid is more important than the flow of information. But in reality, the flow of information from the victims, in the direction of those seeking to intervene is the most important issue, if those intervening truly want to help the victims. Patrick Mugo Mugo examines the impact of intervention, putting an emphasis on the flow of relief aid has had on the victims and their ability to be self-reliant once again.

  • South Sudanese Independence: Challenges Ahead 06/06/2011
    The turbulent history of modern Sudan is about to enter a new chapter as South Sudan prepares for its emergence as an independent state in just a few weeks. Highlighting tensions left unresolved by the 2005 peace agreement, recent actions of the Northern government, as well as economic inequalities and the scramble for oil, Patrick Mugo Mugo outlines some of the challenges ahead for this newest member of the international community.

  • Saudi-Islamic Feminist Movement: A Struggle for Male Allies and the Right Female Voice 03/29/2011
    In this report, journalist Rob Wagner analyzes the nuances of the contemporary Saudi feminist movement and its innovative methods of advocacy to garner support for women's rights and gender-neutral Sharia in Saudi Arabia. He highlights the challenges associated with the Saudi feminist movement in the face of anti-Western activism rejecting their calls for rights to education, travel and other freedoms currently denied by Saudi Sharia.

  • Saudi Women’s Empowerment: Deep pockets, Not Political Activism, is Leading to Independence 02/01/2011
    Journalist Rob L. Wagner examines the growing wealth of Saudi Arabian women, who under Sharia have complete control of their finances. Changes in commercial and real estate laws have given women more flexibility in investing their money in business opportunities. However, Saudi society is slow to embrace such changes, creating roadblocks for women seeking to develop profitable businesses. Yet changes in Saudi society are coming from young Saudi women who came of age in the post-9/11 era. They are returning from Western universities armed with degrees and expectations that jobs and investment opportunities are available.
  • Non-State Conflict Management: Opportunities and Limitations of NGOs Engaging Non-State Armed Groups 12/09/2010
    Muhammed Nawaz Khan provides a comprehensive analysis of opportunities and challenges for interaction between non-state armed groups (NSAGs) and non-governmental organizations (NGOs) in Afghanistan. If such interactions are approached strategically and in a principled way, Khan argues, NSAGs may be brought into development and peacebuilding efforts, and provide the necessary space for negotiation and conflict resolution.

  • The 9/7 Boko Haram Attack on Bauchi Prison: A Case of Intelligence Failure 11/02/2010
    The Nigerian-based Boko Haram Islamic sect revolted in July 2009, marking a period of intense violence. In September 2010, members of the sect organized a prison break to free those who had been incarcerated following last year's revolt. This article reviews the circumstances of the revolt and prison break, offering some suggestions for security and intelligence reform within the Nigerian state.

  • Rehabilitation and Deradicalization: Saudi Arabia’s Counterterrorism Successes and Failures 08/01/2010
    Journalist Rob L. Wagner examines Saudi Arabia’s “soft” rehabilitation program to return Islamic extremists to the “true Islam.” Although the program in its seven-year history has suffered setbacks, its 10 percent recidivism rate points to potential long-term success. The program mixes religion and tough love to return reformed militants to Saudi society in a culture that guards its privacy and values its dignity. With more than 3,000 men successfully passing through the program, Al-Qaeda sees the Saudi government’s efforts as a threat to the group’s recruiting efforts to win the hearts and minds of young Saudis.

  • Food Crisis in the Republic of Niger: What needs to be done? 07/01/2010
    Food crises in the Republic of Niger have been on the rise. Much is being done to alleviate this situation, especially with food aid. Though necessary for immediate relief, this is not a long lasting solution for the country on the whole or specific regions such as northern Niger. It is therefore essential that this landlocked country looks for alternative methods of subsistence in order to improve on the current situation of about two million people on the verge of hunger.

    Key words: Food insecurity, sustainable livelihood, and development

  • The Rise of Private Military Companies and the Legal Vacuum of Regulation 06/01/2010
    This paper discusses the rise of the private military industry as a challenge to contemporary international law. In recent times, the privatization of activities preserved by governments have been proposed and implemented;, such as communication facilities, garbage collection, electricity supply, immigration services and much more. Military operations have not been left out. The increasing privatization of military activities is proving to be a major challenge to international law. The literature on Private Military Companies (PMCs) is mind-boggling, but neither extensive nor exhaustive. As a new phenomenon, it receives situational attention. For example, when the operations of Executive Outcomes and Sandline International were unearthed by the press in the 90s,’ numerous scholarly material was written, but with distinct themes like the efficiency of the corporations and the human rights violations carried out, as well as the legal vacuum created by ex-professional soldiers banding up to create and legally incorporate a mercenary outfit. The issue of PMCs being present in weak states and ravaged war-torn zones is an understatement, yet these corporations are registered mostly in the U.S., U.K. and South Africa. The articles on this issue are usually highly polarized; opponents verses proponents of these corporations, as the activities of these outfits do not fit within any conventional classification as actors of war in the law of war. This paper describes the history and definition of PMCs and analyses how the operations of these corporations affect human rights, sovereignty and states´ monopoly of violence. The paper also focuses on the legality of PMCs and proceeds to discuss how to regulate the industry. The paper concludes in favor of tougher regulatory controls through new international legal framework and national legislation to deal with mercenaries as decisively as with other non-state actors who wield violence.

  • Water Security: War or Peace? 05/03/2010
    Keywords: water security, water war, water peace, virtual water

  • Dams: providing or destroying water security? 04/09/2010
    For over three or four decades, there have been propagandists and antagonists for the construction of dams all over the world. Dams were presumed to evolve with the world as a product of its socio-economic development. History has shown us that dams’ construction is not a recent phenomenon but has existed for sometime, especially with the discovery of the 8,000 year old irrigation canal in the Mesopotamia area.

    This paper examines water security as a concept of environmental security and also analysis through history the importance of dams before the development of the “now concept of dams” and also analysis the role of dams in the present concept with positive and negative impacts on water security. The paper ends by identifying the need of consideration of water security in the management of dams.

    Keywords: Dams, water, security, irrigation and development.

  • Breeding of Wildlife Species as a Means to Sustainable Development 02/04/2010
    This paper addresses the indiscriminate and wanton exploitation of wildlife species and forest resources and explores the impact of these activities, including poverty and species extinction. The paper further gives a detailed analysis and different methods of how certain wildlife species can be bred so as to reduce human pressures on areas of natural habitat and meet livelihood needs.

  • Security Sector Reform in Nepal: A Discussion of Gender Dimensions with Reference to UNSCR 1325 01/07/2010
    Key Words: Nepal, UNHCR 1325, Security Sector Reform, Gender, Peacebuilding

  • Small Arms Control and Management in Cambodia 10/08/2009
    This article raises the growing concerns over the production, accumulation, and availability of illegal small arms around the world and points out negative effects of small arms misuse on post-conflict societies like Cambodia. It further acknowledges and illustrates small arms control efforts of the Cambodian government such as: (1) establishing the National Commission on Weapons Management and Reform (NCWMR); (2) enacting the Law on the Management of Weapons, Explosives and Ammunition; (3) collecting Small Arms and Light Weapons (SALW) nationally; and (4) initiating and developing public awareness campaigns. In-depth analysis of these small arms control efforts follows, and concluding remarks are emphasized at the end.

  • Tigo celular no está contigo en Honduras 09/01/2009
    Maria Suarez Toro reports from Honduras, where feminist organizations continue to oppose the coup, and stand up to the pressure of elite business interests.

  • Challenges to Women's Full Participation in Cambodian Society 08/11/2009
    In Cambodia, women make important and tangible contributions to the social, political, and economic development of the country. However, like many other parts of the world, such contributions are largely unacknowledged and are not given adequate attention, and Cambodian women are often under-represented, which leads to their passive participation and insufficient empowerment in the community and society at large.

    Accordingly, this article touches upon four key challenges to Cambodian women’s participation in social, political, and economic affairs, including: (1) deep-rooted tradition, cultural stereotypes, and social attitudes; (2) gender-biased media and stereotype of Khmer literature; (3) poverty; and (4) high illiteracy. These challenges indicate the reasons why there is lack of women’s dynamic involvement in all affairs, which hinders the development of democratic governance and peace-building in the nation. Effective recommendations, dealing with the challenges, are highlighted before the article comes to a conclusion.

  • Sport as an International Tool for Development and Peacebuilding 06/02/2009
    Satomi Tsuchiya argues for the greater use of sport in peace and development work, with reference to the great potential of sport to engage youth especially -- of both genders -- in positive social activities that build trust and community.

  • Every Man for Himself: A Personal Account of Academic Repression 05/08/2009
    UPEACE Professor Victoria Fontan gives a personal and candid account of academic repression in the United States, exposing, as she puts it "how my research, teaching, and writings were repressed by different sources both within and outside my academic institution during the 2003-2004 year, and how this repression led me to expatriate from US academia into an Iraqi university." This article was first written for an edited volume on academic repression soon to be published by AK Press. Due to legal threats made against AK Press and the book's editors, the article below had to be re-written in a sanitized format. Still, it was courageously published by Counterpunch on March 16th 2009. To date, no legal action was initiated in reprisal.

  • Memory and denial: The Rwandan genocide fifteen years on 04/28/2009
    While most of the world is familiar with Rwandan genocide, fifteen years later the influence of a small band of deniers is growing thanks to the embrace of the deniers' arguments by a small but influential number of left-wing, anti-American journals and websites, cautions Gerald Caplan.

    This article is cross posted from Pambazuka News

  • Legal Corruption: the Cause of the Global Economic Crisis? 03/20/2009
    The multi-million dollar bonuses that American International Group (AIG) is handing over to nameless "executives", after accepting billions in US taxpayer bailout money is, understandably, causing a great deal of alarm in the media and American public in general.

    This massive misallocation of wealth, and the government's inability or unwillingness to prevent it, is exposing a system of "legal corruption". As Errol P. Mendes explains, the ability of economic elites to influence the political oversight and regulation of their activities through lobbying led directly to the current economic crisis.

    Mendes concludes with a call to fiscal responsibility, a concerted effort to root out corruption (including so-called "legal corruption"), and some way to encourage ethical behaviour among elites.

  • Putting money where are causes are: Fundraising for women's groups facing the financial crisis 03/10/2009
    Few people remain unaffected by the recent economic crises, and small organizations dependent on foundations and fundraising efforts are in a particularly difficult position.

    In this timely article, originally published by ON THE ISSUES magazine, Marion Banzhaf offers some welcome advice for women's organizations in particular.

  • Freedom of Movement in Northern Uganda: Case study of Kitgum District 01/20/2009
    Key words: UNHCR, Uganda, Lords Resistance Army, humanitarian organizations, IDP camps,

  • Crucitas gold mine controversy: a lopsided roundtable 12/02/2008
    Jessica Barran reports on the Crucitas gold mine roundtable, recently held on UPEACE campus. Representatives from Industrias Infinito, the Costa Rican government, two environmental NGOs (FECON and AIDA), and the University of Costa Rica, were all given a chance to clarify their positions and field questions on this controversial issue.

  • Peace and Order in Somalia 11/03/2008
    Key words: Ethiopia, USA, Somaila, foreign occupation, terrorism, insurgency, political Islam, financial crisis, peace, democracy, horn of Africa, regional conflict, Islamic Courts Union (ICU), Transitional Federal Government (TFG)

  • La Carpio: exposing the hidden violence of poverty and marginalization in Costa Rica 10/03/2008
    La Carpio is a poor community in Costa Rica, nestled against a wealthy enclave of North American and European ex-patriots. Lynn Schneider takes a sobering look at the discrimination and inequalities faced by residents of La Carpio, demonstrating that cultural and structural violence are deeply ingrained, even in a country praised for its long standing commitment to peace.

  • Human Trafficking: Chains of Fraud 09/13/2008
    Nansiri Iamsuk discusses the complex challenge posed to human rights and peace by the multi-billion dollar human trafficking industry. Focusing on Southeast Asia, Iamsuk shows how victims are deceived and exploited by international criminals, and then ignored or mistreated by governments and/or NGOs that are supposed to help them.

    Key words: un, human trafficking, sex trade, slavery, human rights

  • Hamas: Behind the masks 08/07/2008
    Key Words: Palestine, Israel, Lebanon, Terrorism, Hamas, Negotiation, International Law, Peace, security, Coexistance

  • The Namu Conflict: a problem solving approach 07/07/2008
    Key Words: Problem Solving, Goemai, Pan, ethnic conflict, Nigeria, Lederach, Galtung

  • Olympian China: Meet the Largest and Most Censored Pool of Internet Users in the World 05/05/2008
    As Francesca Musiani writes, the widest mass of Internet end users is now located in an undemocratic country, allowing only a “tamed” version of the Internet, wrapped in state censorship and control. In this special report, Musiani discusses the unique Chinese internet experience and the implications of media regulation on the Olympics and beyond.

  • Victory Does Not Give Rights: The Colombian/US incursion into Ecuador 04/01/2008
    Marco Rossi discusses the recent invasion of Ecuador's national sovereignty in light of the tension between military activities justified by the war on terror and the established principles of international relations embodied by the UN and the OAS.

  • The Tajik Energy Crisis 03/05/2008
    Muhiba Rabejanova reports on the energy crisis now facing Tajikistan, and the humanitarian disaster which will only be exacerbated by the continued apathy of the international community.

  • Save Who from What? Exploring the Ethics of the Save Darfur Coalition 02/04/2008
    Save Darfur patently aims to “save Darfur” by raising awareness, not by providing on-the-ground humanitarian assistance. This is clearly defined on the organization’s website. Yet, through the advertising techniques employed in its media campaigns, the Save Darfur coalition misleads the public by giving off the image of a humanitarian relief organization.

    Maggie Schwalbach takes a closer look at the coalition’s media campaigns and investigates the assumptions present in the advertisements by exploring the moral consequences of raising awareness based on victimization and perpetuating stereotypes of Africans as helpless.

  • Our Nuclear Future? 01/04/2008

    Seeking a solution to climate change, some environmentalists are now controversially advocating nuclear power.

  • Learning Online: Openness, Diversity and Access Debates at the Internet Governance Forum’s Second Meeting 12/04/2007

  • The Padua Wall: Immigration, Conflict, and Integration 10/25/2007

  • Free Trade and the Debate Deficit in Costa Rica 10/05/2007

    Cost Rica is poised on the precipice of historic political action. The Costa Rican people, about 4 million strong, will vote on whether their country should sign the Dominican Republic – Central America – United States Free Trade Agreement (DR-CAFTA). To date this agreement has been ratified by the Dominican Republic, Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras and Nicaragua. Neither Belize nor Panama were involved in negotiations. Costa Rica is the only outstanding signatory.

  • The Rise of Ordinary Fascism and Intolerance in Turkey 07/04/2007

  • Celebrating 44 Years of Cameroon's Unification: Has it Succeeded? 06/07/2007

  • The First Refugees of Global Warming 05/15/2007
    "Where we are standing, in five days it will be gone," foresees a rural Bangladeshi. Rivers will swallow additional land this monsoon season forcing more and more people to find refuge in Dhaka. Where was once rice farms is now shrimp farms; where was once villages is now submerged. Climate change takes its toll in Bangladesh without lament.

  • Islamic Courts Union was Better Placed to Pacify Somalia 04/17/2007

  • Violence Next Door: “Third Party” People-to-People Initiatives in the Israeli/Palestinian Conflict 03/16/2007

  • Bush Orders More CIA Activity in Venezuela 02/28/2007

  • The New Transporters of Weapons of Mass Destruction 02/16/2007
    Small arms and light weapons move swimmingly into war torn areas across the global South. Beyond the reach of border patrols (if they are present) former Eastern European pilots swoop in to make their deliveries on behalf of private company profiteers. Hugh Griffiths provides an inside look.

  • Planned Attack on Iran: Bush Will Expand War Before Blair Resigns 01/30/2007

  • The Female Islamic Combatant 11/29/2006
    Despite a history of female resistance in Islamic society, contemporary culture continues to enslave women, while fixed on an antiquated mode of thought. Katerina Standish takes a historical look at the barrier to equality for women in the context of combat and Islam. Standish is also the author of Human Security and Gender: Female Suicide Bombers In Palestine and Chechnya, the current Peace and Conflict Review article.

  • Is Iraq Another Vietnam? It is Already Lost 10/27/2006

  • 'I Wanted to Take Revenge' 09/28/2006
    The number of girl soldiers is on the increase. Diane Taylor analyzes a new report on girls who actively choose to fight, in pursuit of sexual equality. Internationally, up to 30% of child armies are made up of girls, however in Liberia, many girls volunteer as opposed to being forced unwillingly. For many young girls, becoming a soldier means taking possession of a weapon, which means protection from the ever-present danger of being raped or a chance to escape from physical and sexual abuse at home.

  • Political Polarization in Hollywood 08/23/2006
    Despite the fact that many Jewish leaders in California have been sharply critical of the policies of the government of Israel and the vast majority of American Jews are liberal, especially in Hollywood, Michael Carmichael sees the defection of billionaire Saban and Spielberg to the Republicans in California as a significant move for the “Israel Lobby.”

  • El Salvador's Democracy 06/05/2006
    In the early 1990s, peace negotiations in El Salvador's civil war were made possible by a military stalemate. Now, a decade later, a political stalemate might make real negotiations possible yet again. A look at El Salvador's past, with a view to its future.

  • Cameroon: Democracy at a Crossroads 05/02/2006

  • Massacre Remembered 03/15/2006
    A recent conference at Columbia University brought vividly to life the events of May 13, 2005 in Andijan, Uzbekistan. Journalists and human rights advocates told riveting tales of the massacre there, where it is estimated over 700 people were murdered. Almost a year has passed now, but in many hearts and minds, Uzbek Bloody Friday is still vivid.

  • Indonesia's Move against Terrorism 02/15/2006

  • By the Fireside in Paris 11/17/2005

  • Arab Media Freedom and 7,000 Dead Chickens 11/03/2005

  • Five Sad Reasons to Worry about Peru 09/16/2005
    "There is something different about the way Peruvians do politics," writes Rafael Velasquez. "Something scary, it should be said." Politicians use everything from the powerful coca leaf influence to old resentment towards neighboring Chile to squeeze out a political advantage over their opponents. It is, says Velasquez, a dangerous recipe.

  • “Slim”: HIV/AIDS in Uganda 08/18/2005
    HIV/AIDS was first discovered in Uganda in a small fishing village on Lake Victoria in 1982. Patients lost so much weight that the mystified villagers called the disease simply "slim." By 1999, there were 1,438,000 Ugandans infected with the disease. Along with taking a heavy toll in human life, the disease has ravaged the country's economy and infrastructure, and essentially become serious threat to human security in general.

  • Nagorno-Karabakh conflict: Intractable? 07/12/2005
    Finding a compromise solution to the Nagorno-Karabakh conflict is usually considered the prerequisite for peace and cooperation in the Caucasus. The analysis of the conflict, however, shows that the mutual mistrust and animosity of Armenians and Azeris presently is so high that even the smallest concession, particularly related to the status of Nagorno-Karabakh, is unacceptable to either side. As long as those attitudes persist, no compromise can be reached. The approach, therefore, has to be reversed. In stead of pressing parties to compromise, peace-building efforts must foster regional cooperation. If a high level of regional economic and security integration in the Caucasus is achieved, the significance of the status of Nagorno-Karabakh will decrease, which in its turn will clear a path for a sustainable peace.

  • Uzbek Bloody Friday 06/14/2005
    When Uzbek soldiers fired on protestors this past May, it drew international attention from media groups, NGOs and governments around the globe. The incident, however, was only the latest of what has been a pattern of violence and oppression by Islam Karimov’s totalitarian regime. Meanwhile, as the incident has cooled relations with the US and Europe, China and Russia are approving of Karimov’s use of violence.

  • Peace and Catholicism 05/09/2005
    This piece outlines briefly the Catholic Church’s consistent living of a peace tradition throughout a history tainted by conflict and violence. Based largely upon the work of Ronald G. Musto in his book The Catholic Peace Tradition (Orbis Books, 1986), the article examines the historical development of peace, considers the current meaning of peace (from the past 20 years, highlighting contributions of our recently deceased Pope John Paul II), and ponders some questions left unanswered. It challenges the common misconception that violence is necessary in the pursuit of peace, and highlights the power of the media of technology as well as the influence of each individual to contribute to peace-making efforts.

  • Re-defining the IMU 04/14/2005
    The Islamic Movement of Uzbekistan is considered by governments around the world – most notably the United States – to be a terrorist organization associated with al-Qaeda. But a close look at the group and its declared goals paints, instead, a picture of political struggle against a truly oppressive regime.

  • Israel’s Military Industrial Complex 03/10/2005
    As a child, I remember the Commander of Palmahim Air Force Base inviting the people of Israel, through festive radio jingles, to participate in one of the key events of our independence day: the magnificent exhibition of Israel’s weaponry, culminating in an air-show over the base’s sky, a demonstration of our impressive aircraft. One time my parents took us. I recall the feeling of enormous pride and admiration, combined with reverence, in view of the inspiring sight of the might of our army. The thought that death, pain and horror were involved, did not even pass through my mind.

  • The Letter of the Law: Refugee Rights 02/23/2005
    At the Hal Far refugee camp in Malta, refugees from Africa and other parts of the world are treated according to the letter of the law on refugees. But without social integration into Maltese society, they have no hope of ever living normal lives.

  • Peace in the 21st Century: Prospects and Prescriptions 01/18/2005
    It is increasingly recognized that if civilized society is to contain and defeat international terrorism, we must confront the threat in two related and mutually reinforcing ways. We must maintain adequate levels of military security and take strong, direct action, including military action where necessary, to confront and eradicate terrorism. This is the principal focus of international deliberation and action at the present time. But this is not enough. We must also, through international and national action, and through the efforts of civil society, work together to address the underlying injustices, frustrations and failures that give rise to the hatred and intolerance which drive violence, terrorism and conflict and provide the environment in which they can fester.

  • Maravanpalau Peace Village in Jaffna 12/08/2004
    "Why should we be scared of the LTTE?" said Kandiah, a resident of the village, who lost his son in the war. "Here, the army will protect us and we do not have to take orders from the LTTE. The army officers do not give us orders, they make requests through the citizens' committee." The Marvanapalau peace village is an experiment to win hearts and minds,

  • Trafficking of Women 11/16/2004
    The international crime of trafficking in women for forced prostitution in BiH has been recognized as such since 1995. However, the first night-clubs with women “dancers” from Eastern Europe have been opened in the early 1990s. At that time, it was not clear whether women were trafficked or had arrived on their own to voluntarily work in prostitution. The trade in so called “sex slaves” was relatively unknown in the region until the mid-1990s. The sex industry was fuelled by the arrival of tens of thousands predominantly male U.N. personnel, after the Peace Agreement was signed in 1995.

    BiH has become one of the main destination countries for women mainly from Moldova, Ukraine and Romania. According to information provided by non-govermental organizations (hereinafter NGOs) which specificaly deal with the problem of trafficking in BiH, there are more than 900 brothels spread throughout the country.

    Olivera Simic discusses the problems of bringing this to an end.

  • Powerful Rural Women in Turkana, Kenya 10/19/2004
    On a hot weekday morning about 100 people were meeting in a church in Kainuk, Kenya, a remote rural town on the border between the areas of Turkana and Pokot. Suddenly all the children sitting on the porch of the church took off like a startled flock of birds, running at breakneck speed away from the church. When their parents sitting inside the church saw their children in flight, they dashed after them. The meeting dissolved into chaos...

  • A Victory for Democracy: Bolivia 09/20/2004
    The Bolivian President has promoted a true transition: A constitutional reform, which introduces elements of direct democracy and allows for the postulation of independent candidates in municipal elections, the systematic depolitization of public posts, the ratification of reasonable and realistic agreements (which reconstructs the confidence in negotiation), the rejection to the old practice of “buying” leaders, the revision and reformulation of the Hydrocarbon Law.

  • Vanunu is free: The campaign against Israeli nukes continues 05/20/2004
    As 50 years old Mordechai Vanunu was released last month after 18 years in prison, Aki Orr reminds us that the campaign to make the Middle East a zone free of all weapons of mass-destruction under international control continues.

  • The Privatization of (Women’s) Education 05/05/2004
    Gal Harmat with an Economic Analysis of the privatizing process taking place in Israel, and the actual effects it bears for young women

  • Democracy and Governance in Afghanistan 04/19/2004
    Lack of security, slow progress in the disarmament of militias, and a weakly developed legal and institutional framework for democratic politics are endangering the success of Afghanistan's presidential and parliamentary elections due to be held in September.

  • Women Under Threat in post-Saddam Iraq 03/26/2004

  • The World’s Worst Forgotten Crisis? Uganda To-day. 03/18/2004

  • Potential gains from Peace in the Indian-Pakistan Conflict 02/19/2004
    A new report provides clear and graphic estimates of the gains from peace and the losses that accrue from violent conflict.

  • Peace vs. Accountability in Colombia 02/09/2004
    The author, analysing the nature of the conflict in her country, sees a way out to resolve over forty years of conflict in Colombia. She puts reconciliation before prosecution and punishment.

  • Why the International Criminal Court is Different. 01/26/2004
    The author discusses how the jurisdiction of the International Criminal Court differ from the jurisdictions of the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia and the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda, and concludes that power matters.

  • Brutal Legacy of Congo War 12/15/2003
    "There are thousands of violated ladies showing up. It's like nothing we have ever seen anywhere in the world," said Jo Lusi, head of a Congolese-run hospital in the eastern city of Goma that is working with the U.S.-based aid group Doctors on Call for Service.

  • Crying out loud for the children 11/24/2003
    Catherine Onekalit asks the question can von-violent methods help to end the war that has lasted seventeen years in northern Uganda destroying the lives of thousands of children and young people. She notes that progress has been slow but that is no excuse for stopping. Quite the opposite, and one way of moving forward is to shout as loudly as possible. The Peace and Conflict Monitor is helping. Join in the cacophony.

  • Breeding Trouble 11/04/2003
    In a world where many people expect progress with each generation, most of the young Central Asia are worse off than their parents. They have higher rates of illiteracy, unemployment, poor health, and drug use, and they are more likely to be victims and perpetrators of violence. The Central Asian states need to confront grim realities in education and labour opportunities if they are to turn the next generation away from socially destructive alternatives.

  • Edward Said: the traveller and the exile 10/20/2003
    This article is reprinted from and assesses the life and work of Edward Said who died last month of leukaemia.

  • Indigenous Production & Globalization in Central America 09/29/2003
    Brett Sheppard recently made a special study of Central American indigenous communities in the context of the Indigenous Community Integrated Ecosystems Management (GEF) Project of the World Bank, and notes the importance of both cultural as well as biodiversity.

  • A New Look at Economic Development 09/16/2003
    Considering the most recent developments in Western societies, there is a growing consciousness that a deep change is needed in the type of economic development as well as the social values that are currently pursued. The International Scope Review was created at the end of 1998 to bring an answer to this situation. In 2002, The Social Capital Foundation was created to support and manage the Review and to set up other types of actions likely to make the public aware of alternative approaches. This article discusses the underpinning theory and practice of the Foundation.

  • Collective peace-keeping in West Africa 07/28/2003
    Linus Malu provides the background to the prospects for collective peace-keeping in West Africa. His report appraises conflict prevention and resolution methods employed by the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS). First, it examines the operations of the ECOWAS Monitoring Group (ECOMOG) in the region and evaluates the impact of the body in conflict resolution. Second, it examines the Mechanism for Conflict Prevention, Management, Resolution, Peacekeeping and Security established in 1999 by the ECOWAS Heads of States in Lome, Togo. In the last section Linus Malu evaluates the impact of the Mechanism on conflict prevention and resolution in West Africa. For the latest news see:

  • Peacekeeping and Gendered Relations 07/14/2003
    Television pictures of peacekeepers holding babies, handing out sweets to children, and disarming militia combine to portray these individuals as saviours of the war torn citizenry. Peacekeeper’s involvement in the reconstruction of schools, roads and utilities add to the sense that wealthier, more powerful countries wish to assist through their agreement to contribute peacekeeping troops, who in turn, are noted to impact positively on the society in question. However, these representations jostle with others that may evoke a qualitatively different response......

  • Women's Voices at War: In the Stars 06/24/2003
    Women's World is a global free speech network founded in 1994 to develop programmes to enable women to have a stronger public voice. They recently ran an essay contest "Women's Voices in War Zones" co-sponsored by the Nation Institute and supported by the Puffin Foundation. The essays were judged by Ammiel Alcalay, Katha Pollitt and Paula Giddings. The three categories for entries were: citizens/residents of the USA; immigrants/refugees; citizens/residents of other countries. We print the winner from Uganda.

  • Is Protest music as dead as Disco? 05/12/2003
    A Generation previously protest music both reflected an era of political ferment and helped push the agenda for peaceful change. Joseph Schumacher looks at the current state of protest music and wonders what happened.

  • Shifting Sands: Instability in Undefined Asia 04/28/2003

  • INSPECT THIS: WMD Inspections in the United States? 04/14/2003